Roach explains that the terms “strong” and “weak” refer to the phonetic characteristics of the syllables also described in terms of stress, where strong syllables are stressed and weak syllables unstressed. He also points out that strong syllables have a vowel phoneme as its peak, whereas weak syllables can only have the weak sounds /І/ and /ə/ or the syllabic consonants /ṃ, ṇ, ḷ/ at its peak. Gimson (1975:33) mentions that an important feature of English pronunciation is that unstressed syllables are usually weak and have obscure qualities. Akinjobi (2004) however notes that some features of English are in the usage of vowels and syllables found in unstressed syllables. These vowels are shortened and become of lower intensity because usually, a vowel that occurs in an unstressed position is reduced to a schwa /ə/ or omitted completely.
For example, words such as about and perhaps. Besides, the English long vowels dwell of i:, ɜ:, ɑ:, ɔ: and u:. The mark of two dots [:] to show that it is a long vowel in the English long vowels and it is has certain length in pronouncing the words.
The discourse analyst focuses on â€œan investigation of what that language is used forâ€, it means purpose and aim of communication, as has actually been mentioned before (Yule 1983: 1). Levels of analysis Crystal (1997: 15) mentions a few levels of analysis which are highly important for a detailed analysis of a text. Each level represents one area of linguistics such as lexicology or phonetics and phonology. On the basis of these areas different levels of analysis can be distinguished: phonetic and phonological, graphological, grammatical, lexical. Verdonk mentions importance of pragmatics and claims that â€œpragmatics is concerned with the meaning of language in discourse, that is, when it is used in an appropriate context to get particular aimsâ€ (Verdonk 2002:
Furthermore, both sounds are articulated in the same place by what they are known as dental. Yule (2010) stated that “these sounds are formed with the tongue tip behind the upper front teeth” (p. 27). In addition, phonetic sounds belong to a manner of articulation. In case of this research the th sounds are part of the “fricatives”. Fricatives are defined as “a consonant sound that is created by constricting the vocal tract, causing friction as the air passes through it” (Dale & Poms, 1986, p. 43).
For example, when producing the vowel [i], we raise and advance the body of the tongue with a tense gesture. Whereas, the vowel [a] is made with the tongue lowered and a lax gesture. Unlike vowels, consonants are made by a partial or complete
Introduction Young and Sachs (1) showed that speech formants are conserved in the auditory nerve discharge pattern. Following their work, Greenberg (2) used complex stimuli to record speech ABR. He demonstrated that vowel formants can be truly encoded in the auditory brainstem response. (2) This stimulus reliability was further confirmed by Galbraith et al. who showed that words elicit a speech ABR that can be heard (3, 4) Many complex stimuli have been investigated to assess how the temporal and spectral features of sound stimuli are maintained in the auditory brainstem response.
The result is that English spelling patterns vary considerably in the degree to which they follow rules. For example, the letters ee almost always represent /i□/but the sound can also be represented by the letters I and y. Similarly , the letter cluster ought represents /□,f / as in enough , / o□/ as in though , / u □ / as in through, □ f / as in cough , / a □ as in bough , /□□/ as in bought , and / □ p / as in hiccough , while in slough and ought , the pronunciation varies
Consequently, there are a great number of words that have suffered different transformations due to the several influences. The aim of this paper will be to analyze the transformations that the word axe has suffered through the years. Thus, this paper will begin defining the etymology of the word and looking at its semantic changes. Moreover, this paper will analyze the spelling and syntactic changes of the word. Finally, it will look at actual samples of different contexts along the time.
There are several kinds of writing and different styles associated with each form of writing. The researcher of this thesis proposes to analyse the stylistics of technical writing and creative writing, thereby investigating the rhetorical variations between them. Linguistics is a scientific study of language and its use; stylistics is a part of applied linguistics which analyses the various elements of style determining the
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Speech is a way of communication between the speaker and the human listeners. Speech is the signal that carries the message information. Speaker produces the speech signal in form of pressure waves generated by pushing inhaled air from the lungs through the vibrating vocal cords and vocal tract and out from the lips and nose airways. Evaluation of speech quality is of great importance at different nodes of communication system. Voice quality assessment becomes challenging task in the complex communication network.