In alphabetic languages such as English, individual spoken sounds are represented by individual letters or groups of letters. For reading and spelling, a young child should learn the complex rules by which these letters and sounds relate to each other. In languages with non-alphabetic orthography such as Chinese, There is no need to break words down into individual phonemes. Phonological impairments can cause greater difficulty in alphabetic languages than in logographic languages (Brunswick, 2009: 48). Several studies have shown that phonological awareness is essential in literacy and development of skills in reading and writing.
It requires the reader to learn simpler individual sounds first, then start to put them together to form words, and finally progress to the most complex combinations. The sounds are taught in a particular way, not to sound like the letters for example, the sound for t would be taught as this short sound and not as 'tee' or 'tuh. The simpler and most commonly used sounds will be the first to be taught, as these are also straightforward (s, a, t, l, p and n).These can then be put together to form many simple three- letter words, which can be sounded out by children from a relatively early stage (for example, p-i-n' or c-u-p). Children's confidence usually develops quickly and they can sound out different words quite easily as they start to blend combinations of sounds together an important stage of this process. As children
As has already been stated, phonology is that field of linguistics concerned with the study of how sounds differ and behave in different speeches, speakers and even, in particular contexts. In contrast and as Omolara (2011:1) asserts, phonetics is frequently defined as the “scientific description of what speech sounds exist in a language and how they are both produced and perceived,
It is important to have an instructional focus for developing learners, especially those in their early years to learn and use the alphabetic principle and understand the systematic and predictable relationships between written letters and spoken sounds. This principle helps the learner to build on their ability to read and pronounce words. This paper gives an insight to teaching phonics and both phonological and phonemic awareness to young learners who are at an early impressionable age, recognizing the challenges and complications with reading and pronunciation, along with identifying the methods of teaching young learners the fundamental backbone of a spoken language. For a learner to be successful at reading and writing, they must first
The non-native speakers of English especially the Indian speakers of English face certain problems in articulating certain sounds of English. As there are many irregularities in English pronunciation, a learner needs to take care of learning spelling and pronunciation. This is so because the twenty-six letters have to function of forty-four sounds. The sound system of English is divided into two main aspects: segmental and supra-segmental. The segmental aspect of the sound system includes individual vowels and consonants, and the supra-segmental aspect comprises of words, phrases, and sentence stress, pitch contour or intonation, and rhythm.
This involves understanding a speaker's accent or pronunciation, his grammar and his vocabulary, and grasping his meaning. An effective listener is capable of doing these four things, but a beginner finds it very difficult as he/ she can have no control over the structural and lexical range of the speaker to whom he/she is listening. Nevertheless, any listener can learn to focus on significant content items if he/she learns to listen selectively. In listening
Phonemic awareness is the notion that spoken words can be broken down into smaller sound units, known as phonemes. It is likely that, children who are read to from an early age, in particular texts that rhyme, often acquire the foundation of phonemic awareness. Along with this, it is also likely, that children who are not read to, will need to be taught the concept of phonemes and breaking down words into smaller sounds once they reach school. According to Berg and Stegelman, (2003, as cited by Hamilton, 2007) children must first become aware of the sound structure of language to make the transition from oral language to literacy. Likewise, Chard and Dickson (1999, as cited by Hamilton) established the idea that phonemic awareness can establish
Then, listening activity needs to integrate skills of language, such as pronunciation, vocabulary mastery, writing, speaking, and reading. However, Underwood (1990) mentions some kinds of difficulties in listening that are directly related to the students themselves. One of the problems is based on the fact that students have established learning habits in the sense that
INTRODUCTION Literature Review Much similarity have been found between music and language development. Studies have found that the roots of music and language are indistinguishable, and early perception of sound, the first crucial aspect, involves common processes. Infant’s early vocalization shares both musical and linguistic characteristics. Melodic utterances, due to the environment, only starts occurring from 9-18 months. (Chen-Hafteck, 1997) In language oriented societies, language acquisition is reinforced early for communication purposes, while resulting in a general lag in musical ability, although young children possess similar potential to develop both musical and linguistic skills.