What is Discourse Analysis? Discourse analysis is basically a common term for a range of approaches to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use or any significant semiotic event. Discourse analysis is usually viewed as language sentence or the clause. It is the look of linguistics that's concerned about how we build up meaning in larger communicative, instead of grammatical units. It studies meaning in text, paragraph and conversation, rather than in single sentence.
In the first case Saussure (1916) established that it is formed by the signified and signifier. Each of them has different approaches to learn the language. In the signifier it could be found the phonetic and the phonologic so it is a proper way to understand what are the sound of the different words and interpret them in a correct manner. However the signified is created by the use of the morphology, semantic and syntax, which are the main features of language. But Generativism differs from Structuralism in that part of the study of language, the main reason of that opposition is that Chomsky (1957) propose an alternative in the linguistic sign, so the main goal of that approach was to offers a number of element that help to understand the language such as phonology and
He provided a file about the learner needs in terms of communication purposes, communicative setting, the means of communication, language skills, functions, structures etc. d- Skills and strategies we had seen the previous stages specially the first two stages of ESP. it is focuses on the surface form of the language ( whether at sentence level, as in register analysis or as in discourse analysis). Also the target situation did not introduce something new because its analysis looked to the surface linguistics features of the situation. This phase looks under the surface and the thinking processes that used in language.
According to David Crystal [7, p. 240], pragmatics is the study of language from the point of view of its users, especially of the choices they make, the constraints they encounter in using language in social interactions and the effects their use of language have on other participants in the act of communication. G. Kasper (1993) defines the term as “the study of people's comprehension and production of linguistic action in context” [17, p. 3]. The words action and context, two crucial elements of speech acts in language are included there. Thus, the linguist uses the term linguistic action which defines the learner’s capacity to produce an
Sounds must be examined and evaluated in order to comprehend their purpose in a certain language. In phonological analysis, there is a need to establish whether two sounds in a given language belong to two separate phonemes or are allophones of a single phoneme. In order to gather this information, an examination of the distribution of the sounds are done. The distribution of a phone is a set of phonetic environments in which it occurs. (lang files) The contrastive distribution or complementary distribution of two sounds in a language is dependent upon the environments in which they belong.
According to Bouvy (2000), “enhancing the connections between the languages in both teachers and learners; that is, bridging the languages, creating synergies and exploiting resources” (Bouvy 2000: 38). In Khamene’s study (2011) on comparison between bilinguals’ and trilinguals’ writing performance, the nature of interconnections presented in the writing performances differs across varying levels of proficiency in each language. According to Khamene, writing skills and strategies and even concepts readily developed in the previous languages are accessible through the target language (Khamene
Even though all of the elements of interest must interact, it is possible to differentiate individual elements that compose a meaningful language. Troike states phonology as an element of a language used in the acquisition of a second language. Phonology is that element of a language that shows the different sounds of a speech thereby creating different meanings. It defines the possible sequences of vowels and consonants in what is referred to as a syllable structure. Further, phonology deals with intonation patterns that include
In addition, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, specifically word order. The term syntax is also used to refer to the study of such principles and processes. The goal of many syntacticians is to discover the syntactic rules common to all