This allow desaturated blood to shunt right to left side, causing desaturation in the left side of the heart and in the systemic circulation causing hypoxia and cyanosis. PULMONARY ATRESIA / PULMONARY STENOSIS Pulmonary Stenosis is the narrowing at the entrance to the pulmonary artery causing right ventricular hypertrophy. Pulmonary Atresia is the severe form of pulmonary stenosis. Pathophysiology When Pulmonary Stenosis is present, resistant to blood flow cause right ventricular hypertrophy – right atrial pressure will increase – reopening of the foramen ovale, shunting of unoxygenated blood into the left atrium, systemic circulation. Clinical manifestation: Cyanosis, characteristic murmur , cardiomegaly .
Myocardial perfusion imaging: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a form of functional cardiac imaging, used for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. The underlying principle is that under conditions of stress, diseased myocardium receives less blood flow than normal myocardium. MPI is one of several types of cardiac stress test. A cardiac specific radiopharmaceutical is administered. E.g.
The operation is performed in the chest cavity on the heart, with the septum and valves being reconstructed or replaced. The cardiovascular system is affected because this determines how well the heart is able to pump blood throughout the body. The surgical pathology of the atrioventricular septal defect repair procedure abnormal anatomy. This defect, which is created during gestation pre-birth, is considered
Villegas-Navaro, A., Rosas-L, E., & Reyes L., J. (2003). The heart of Daphnia magna: effects of four cardioactive drugs. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology and Pharmocology , 127-134. The purpose of this article was to test four cardioactive drugs (ouabain, verapamil, metaproterenol and metoprolol) to see what effects they have on the heart rate of Daphnia magna.
There are many things that can be done in order to manage atrial fibrillation such as undergoing certain procedures and taking certain medicine. With atrial fibrillation the medicine can be taken to aid with controlling the heart rate and preventing blood clots. The medication that can be used for this is amiodarone and Propafenone because they are antiarrhythmic. Antiarrhythmic drugs are use help with arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats) in the heart. Amiodarone is a group three antiarrhythmic drug which means that it works by blocking the potassium channels which then slows down the cells ability to repolarize but it has properties of all four type of antiarrhythmic.
• Radiofrequency ablation- Usually it used for larger varicose veins. The treatment is ambulatory and is performed by inserting a catheter into the vein. Once inserted, the catheter is heated and the heat shrinkage test and the closing of the vein. • Stripping- this technique removes the diseased vein through a series of small incisions. Stripping can be long, if the removal relates to the stretch from the groin to the ankle, short if it goes from the groin to the knee.
Korotkoff sounds, also known as the K-Sounds are the arterial sounds heard through a stethoscope which is placed to the brachial artery distal to the cuff of a sphygmomanometer that change with varying cuff pressure. The Korotkoff sounds are used to determine systolic and diastolic blood pressure. These sounds are classified into five different phases. The phase 1 (K-1), phase II (K-2), phase III (K-3), phase IV (K-4) and phase V (K-5). In Phase I, the first sound can be heard as the cuff of the stethoscope deflated.
 DCM is a progressive disease of the heart muscle. The disease is characterized by weakening of the ventricular myocardial muscle, resulting from elongation of myocytes accompanied by a vacuolar sarcoplasm and reduced myofibril density.  Weakening of the heart muscle results in a decreased stroke volume, leading to compensatory changes by a process called remodeling. The remodeling is characterized by elongation of myocytes by addition of sarcomeres, resulting in dilation -enlargement - of the heart while the wall thickness does not increase proportionally. This process of remodeling can spread to the other ventricle and to the atria.
When increased respiration rises the blood pH level beyond the normal range 7.35-7.45, it causes respiratory alkalosis. Some causes are anxiety, fever, hyperventilation, pregnancy or any lung disease that causes shortness of breath (Respiratory alkalosis, 2014). Mechanisms responsible for compensation to respiratory alkalosis are rapid cell buffering and decrease in renal acid excretion (Respiratory alkalosis, 2014). To treat respiratory alkalosis carbon dioxide is to be inhaled. Inhaling inside of a paper bag or using a mask that causes you to re-breath carbon dioxide can be used as treatment (Respiratory alkalosis, 2016).
It is a noninvasive technique that means this signal is measured on the surface of human body which is used in identification of the heart diseases [17, 18]. Any disorder of heart rate or rhythm, or change in the morphological pattern, is an indication of cardiac arrhythmia which could be detected by analysis of the recorded ECG waveform. The amplitude and duration of the PQRS-T wave contains useful information about the nature of disease afflicting the heart. The electrical wave is due to depolarization and repolarization of Na+ and K ions in the blood . Electrocardiography is considered to be one of the most powerful diagnostic tools in medicine that is routinely used for the assessment of the functionality of the heart.
PULMONARY OEDEMA Introduction Pulmonary oedema is defined as the build-up of fluid in the lungs usually due to Left ventricular failure and also a result of non-cardiogenic complications (Deepak, 2010). In this essay the three main causes of oedema will be explained, the pathophysiology, the intensity factors and the management in a pre-hospital setting. Causes of Pulmonary Oedema The two main causes of oedema are cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic. Cardiogenic pulmonary oedema is defined as the build-up of fluid in the lungs usually due to Heart failure. When the heart loses the ability to pump out blood to systemic circulation, it back flows into the pulmonary circulation.
sudden cardiac arrest is when the heart suddenly stops beating. Blodd stops flowing to the brain and other organs. Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) causes death if not treated in minutes. The most common cause is an arythmia which is when rapid pulses causes your ventricles to quiver instead of pumping blood. Usually a life threatning arythima develops in a Person with a pre-existing heart condition such as: coronary artery disease, heart attack, or electrical problems in the heart.
Atrial Fib: In atrial fibrillation, the atrial rhythm and ventricular rhythms are irregular. The atrial rhythm is greater than 400 beats/minute. The atrial activity looks erratic and irregular. Causes of Atrial fibrillation include COPD, heart failure (which EM has),hyrotoxicosis, constrictive pericarditis, ischemic heart disease, sepsis, pulmonary embolus, rheumatic heart disease, hypertension, mitral stenosis, atrial irritation, or complication of coronary bypass or valve replacement surgery. If a patients condition is stable, treatment includes drug therapy that may commonly include calcium channel blockers, and beta blockers.
Why is Al’s AP chest diameter increased and how does this correspond to the PFTs? Al 's AP chest diameter is increased ("barrel chest") from the chronic air trapping. Excess air is trapped in the lungs, which is shown in his PFTs results (NIH, 2016). The lungs are hyperinflated, which is why the RV and FRC are increased. COPD pathophysiologically prevents the trapped air from being breathed out, which is indicated by the decreased VC.
This test is selected as the research question is looking for the association between is NIofH Hypertension Category which is the independent variables and ordinal level of measurement and engagement in weekly moderate activity which is the dependent variable and is nominal level of measurement (Loiselle et al., 2011). There are two different samples and the researcher is interested in if there is an association between the two samples. A Chi-Square for independence test looks at the association between two samples that are both of a categorical level of measurement (Salkind, 2013). Lastly, the statistics assignment seven outline provided a cross tabulation SPSS output of frequencies and a Chi-Square test output. The SPSS output has four columns that consist of the independent variable NIofH Hypertension Category and two rows that consist of the dependent variable engagement in weekly moderate activity (Salkind, 2013).