Phonological Awareness And Reading

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1-Introduction
Reading is an essential component of academic learning and base of becoming an informed member of community(Koda, 2008), Also, it is believed that reading is in the top of the national agenda.(McGill-Franzen, 2011).Since the ease of learning to read and spell depends on our native language, the incidence of developmental dyslexia depends on the depth of the language. the incidence of dyslexia for speakers of alphabetic languages is between 5% and 15% (Brunswick, 2009).
Phonological awareness is the metalinguistic ability by which children can recognize (and manipulate) individual sounds in oral language, from words to syllables and phonemes. According to Everatt (2006) phonological awareness is understanding speech sounds regardless
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In alphabetic languages such as English, individual spoken sounds are represented by individual letters or groups of letters. For reading and spelling, a young child should learn the complex rules by which these letters and sounds relate to each other. In languages with non-alphabetic orthography such as Chinese, There is no need to break words down into individual phonemes. Phonological impairments can cause greater difficulty in alphabetic languages than in logographic languages (Brunswick, 2009: 48). Several studies have shown that phonological awareness is essential in literacy and development of skills in reading and writing. The importance of this capability is to the extent that some children especially poor reader may never attain qualification for doing the complex phoneme manipulation…show more content…
The sample consisted of two language groups, namely first-language English (EL1), an opaque orthography (n=42) and second-language English with first-language one of the nine official African languages of South Africa (EL2), a transparent orthography (n=37). English is deep language due to its inconsistent grapheme-to-phoneme correspondence and irregular orthography (Wydell, 1999). His primary aim was to examine the relationship between phonological awareness and working memory. He found that the relationship between working memory and phonological awareness depended on the depth of analysis of phonological awareness, which determines the level of demand made on working memory. It shows that the type of the task is very important in the result of test’s

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