Historically, terrestrial habitats used to be in rigid environments, lacking in organic matter and nutrients and were not favourable to plants with primitive root system. AM fungi were important for the successful invasion of plants onto land. Fungi, with their nutrient scavenging hyphae, were able to obtain nutrient better. Today’s terrestrial ecosystem are more favourable to plant invasion, but AM fungi remain to be involved in the ecosystem processes which are the the Carbon and Phosphorus cycles. The part of AM fungi in ecosystem is obvious, but the implication of AM fungi biodiversity on ecosystem-level measures is less arguable (Heijden & Sanders,
It is often used in the selective identification of enteric bacteria including Salmonella and Shigella. The TSI agar has glucose, lactose and sucrose as the sources of carbohydrates. Phenol red is the acid base indicator incorporated in the medium. The TSI medium indicates whether the bacteria ferments glucose only, or lactose and sucrose with or without production of gas. Nitrate serves as a source of nitrogen for many bacteria.
How do mycorrhizae affect plants? many mycorrhizal spores are usually present in the organic matter that is close to the surface of healthy soil, and they typically multiply where there is moist and aerated conditions .If the hyphae of the spores meet with the roots of plant which then provide the hyphae with chemical cues like organic acid that leads to mycorrhizal growth, the hyphae will break through the cell walls to the cell membrane forming chemical passageways between the soil and the plant. Mycorrhizae then get soil water and nutrients from pockets that are inaccessible. it is important to say that mycorrhizae do not colonize to a specific plant or at specific time ;however, they colonize most of the plants and have multiple host at different times .they can work as an intermediate between roots of different species and help in carrying nutrients to the plants with dire need , also they stabilizes the soil ,increase its aggregates and promote in organic matter decomposition .Thus, ending up in a fungal freeway network where nutrient and water can reach plants easily. Why don’t plants have defences against mycorrhizal infection?
The final stage is for the roots to absorb all the cations that have been released from the bonding of the hydrogen ions and the negatively charged soil2 . These are the stages required for the plants to get nutrients from the soil by the cation exchange. The next cycle that can be very valuable in plants being able to get nutrients within their soil is the nitrogen cycle. The nitrogen cycle is when nitrogen from the atmosphere or from decomposed organic material can be converted into nutrients by nitrogen-fixing bacteria1 . This process can be very successful for both the plants and the bacteria because they both end up giving each other something in return.
IMPACT OF FUNGI ON HUMANS Fungi are eukaryotic, sporulating, heterotrophic organisms which acquire nutrients through absorption. Their vegetative bodies are made up of thalli and reproduce both asexually and sexually, although in some the sexual stage is not known. Various classes exist; basidiomycetes, ascomycetes, deuteromycetes, zygomycetes and oomycetes. The impact of fungi on humans cannot be underestimated. They play vital roles in the ecosystem, including the wellbeing of man.
Henceforth comes the concept of “Artificial Enzymes” the de novo engineered enzymes that are non-toxic and biodegradable. Artificial Enzymes also defined as enzyme mimicker are specially designed and synthesized molecules with the attributes of enzyme that advocates catalysis by mimicking the active site of enzyme. The main approach in the design of these engineered mimickers is understanding the concept of binding/proximity effect i.e., the binding of substrate to the active site of enzyme which results in catalysis due to proximity effect. Therefore the “mechanism of catalysis” can be recreated by using small molecules (such as few amino acids, proteins) that can possibly mimic the enzyme active site. These novel catalysts incorporate the typical enzyme catalytic groups and they achieve selectivity in their reactions by use of geometric control, as do enzymes and this has led to rate acceleration by optimizing the structural geometry.
It is either consumed in supplementary form or indirectly through diet. The most common forms of selenium in dietary supplements include selenomethionine, selenocysteine and selenite. The influence of chemicals on the cultivation land determines the amount of selenium in the soil, which indirectly determines the amount of selenium entering our body system. The plants convert inorganic forms of selenium to organic making it available for humans. The selenium content of plant foods varies from one country to another and also shows regional variation.
They do this by reacting with components of the ribosomes: the structure within the cell where proteins are made. The specific site of action of T-2 toxin, which is a reaction with a critical site on the ribosomal RNA (rRNA), is known. Compared with some of the other mycotoxins such as aflatoxin, the trichothecenes do not appear to require metabolic activation to exert their biological activity. After direct dermal application or oral ingestion, the trichothecene mycotoxins can cause rapid irritation to the skin or intestinal mucosa. In cell-free systems or single cells in culture, these mycotoxins cause a rapid inhibition of protein synthesis and polyribosomal disaggregation.
CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates are the most abundant biomolecules on Earth. Each year, photosynthesis converts more than 100 billion metric tons of CO2 and H2O into cellulose and other plant products. Carbohydrates are widely distributed in plants and animals; they have important structural and metabolic roles. In plants, glucose is synthesized from carbon dioxide and water by photosynthesis and stored as starch or used to synthesize the cellulose of the plant cell walls. Animals can synthesize carbohydrates from amino acids, but most are derived ultimately from plants.