Methods 1.1 Harvest and Fix Spheroids The following steps are used to harvest and fix spheroids: 1. Place a pipette tip near the bottom of the well of a spheroid-containing 96-well plate and aspirate both the medium supernatant and spheroids. Be careful to avoid touching the tip to the bottom of the well to prevent crushing the spheroids in the bottom. 2. Pipette the spheroids into a 1.5 mL microcentrifuge tube.
F) Micro Extraction by Packed Sorbent (MEPS) MEPS are a miniaturization of the ordinary SPE. The sorbent bed of MEPS is incorporated into a liquid handling syringe which permits samples with low void volume. Then the solvent volume is injected straightly into the liquid chromatography or gas chromatography. Procedure of MEPS There are 4 distinct stages are involved in the MEPS which are sampling, washing, elution follow by injection. Stage 1: Sampling The samples are cycled over the MEPS Barrel insert and needle (BINS) so as to transfer the interested compound into the sorbent.
Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to see how long it takes for the 10 spinach leaf discs to undergo photosynthesis and thereby rise in the two solutions. Hypothesis: All of the leaf discs in the sodium bicarbonate solution should be floating before the discs in plain water because the bicarbonate is a carbon source that will allow photosynthesis to continue. Background: Light is absorbed by leaf pigments (chlorophyll) which makes electrons within a photosystem moved to a higher energy level. The leaves then make ATP, which reduces NADP to NADPH, and add CO2 into organic molecules. When the leaves go through the process of a light-dependent reaction by being placed in water, oxygen is created through photosynthesis and is released
3. Carefully remove the comb and tape surrounding the plate and transfer the gel plate to the electrophoretic tank such that wells are towards the cathode 4. Pour 1X TAE buffer into the tank until the gel is completely submerged. Connect the electrode to the power supply 5. Load the plasmid DNA preparation and standard DNA marker into separate well with help of a micropipette or a syringe 6.
The conical flask was titrated until it reach end point. The result was recorded 5. Finally, the actual molarity of 0.1M Sodium hydroxide was calculated Sample preparation: 1. A burette was cleaned by rinsing water with several portion of distilled water. (note: make sure the burette is clean enough when water droplets do not cling to the inner surface.
After the tubes were centrifuged, any pellets formed during the process were removed. 5 drops of Enzyme color reagent was put into each test tube and then incubated. During the incubation process, the tubes were agitated to evenly mix all the contents in the tube. Following incubation, the spectrophotometer was heated up to prepare for sample readings. Each tube was then dragged into the spectrophotometer to be analyzed.
This experiment is set up the study the effect of different sodium bicarbonate concentrations on the rate of photosynthesis in spinach (Spinacia oleracea). Photosynthesis is the process by which plants and other photoautotrophs synthesize organic compounds from carbon dioxide (Faculty of Science and Horticulture, 2018). Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast of a plant cell, where sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide are used in a reaction to produce oxygen and sugar (Reese 2017). In the photosynthesis reaction carbon dioxide is reduced to make sugar and water is oxidized to make oxygen. In this experiment oxygen production is being used to measure the rate of photosynthesis.
Sample application The samples were applied on the coated glass plates with the help of a micro capillary, (micropipette) and spots were placed onto the starting line not more than 4 mm in diameter and the spot were dried. Development of chromatographic chamber The chromatography chambers were activated by the saturation of fumes caused due to the solvent mixtures used as mobile phase. Solvent system The solvent system was evaluated on the basis of the nature of the components by trial and error. Different solvent systems were taken for the separation as described in the results. Development Method of Chromatograms Ascending technique was used for the chromatography and the solvent was allowed up to the height of about 15-18 cm of the vertically placed plate in the closed chromatography chamber.
• After the above was assembled the still head was connected to the condenser which had the tubing connected to allow water in and out. • The condenser was then connected to the receiver bend with a joint clip and a sample vial was placed just below its opening. • The apparatus was then clamped at two points the flask and the condenser. • A sample of (~30mL) of liquid mixture A was collected in a round bottom flask that contained anti-bumping granules. • The solution was then heated gently until the solution begins to distil and that is when the first temperature was recorded.
To further study caffeine content of soft drinks we use the HPLC to determine it. We use the reverse phase HPLC method where the mobile phase is polar and the stationary phase is non polar. The sample would be injected in a pump and pressurized by a liquid. The substance is move in the mobile phase and goes to a column.Thus it can be adjusted in order to affect a particular analyte that will interact with each other. From these results, the chromatogram, tR, measurement of retention time, peak area are made.