Strong bases with higher pKa are able to deprotonate molecules that have lower pKa values such as acids to produce a salt and water. The conjugate acid of the strong base must be weaker than the acid it is trying to deprotonate. Weaker bases on the other hand which have lower pKa values are unable to deprotonate the same molecule as the strong base. Thus, NaHCO3 which has a pKa value of 6.4 is unable to deprotonate the phenol which has a higher pKa of 10.2. So, the HCO3- will not take the H+ from the phenol and no salt will be
For photosynthesis to takes place, there should be a presence of chlorophyll, light, 〖CO〗_2 water and suitable temperature. Temperature, light intensity, and carbon dioxide concentration are possible limiting factors on the rate of photosynthesis. It is because if more than one essential condition for chemical process is favorable, its rate will be limited by the factor which is nearest its minimum value. I am going to observe the effect of using different colors of light on the rate of photosynthesis in the experiment. Since I am interested to grow flowers by myself, I have used to grow variety of flowers and plants.
Aromatic carboxylic acids show not only the acidity and other reactions expected of carboxylic acids (as a benzoic acid, is slightly stronger than acetic acid) but, similar to other aromatic acid compound, also undergo electrophilic substitution reactions. The COOH group act as deactivating, meaning electrophilic substitutions take place less readily than with benzene
It is possible that these were the pigments needed to photosynthesize that plant or it was just an anomaly but it wouldn’t be known until further experiments are conducted. Under green light only Xanthophyll B was produced. It is possible that xanthophyll B is only needed under green light for this particular plant. Under red light both chlorophyll and xanthophyll were produced. Chlorophyll is produced under both blue and red light not because they produced insignificant pigments but because chlorophyll is very common and is necessary for a lot of
Hypothesis If a plant is exposed to light after a set period of etiolation, then a plant will de-etioize and the production of chloroplasts instead of etioplasts will be stimulated. 2.1 Motivation Plants that have etiolation, have etioplasts. Due to the lack of light, there is a lack of chlorophyll and the plant turns yellowish. After being exposed to light, the etioplasts will be stimulated to develop into chloroplasts. These chloroplasts contain chlorophyll and this causes the plant to turn green.
Although now both the tannins salt and caffeine are water soluble, using an organic solvent, dichloromethane, renders tannins salt insoluble. Caffeine is more soluble in dichloromethane (14g/100g) than in water (2g/100g). Caffeine will dissolve in the dichloromethane phase while tannins salts remain in the aqueous phase. Addition of sodium sulphate will act as a drying agent and evaporation of the dichloromethane solution would yield pure caffeine which is white in
This is due to the boiling points of the two compounds are too close for an effective simple distillation. A simple distillation only works when the boiling points of the two compounds are separated by at least 50 °C (CITATION). Meanwhile, the boiling points of the compounds of the mixtures are 82.3 °C for 2-pronanol and 117 °C for 1-butanol (National Center for Biotechnology Information). As well, while fractional distillation is more difficult due to the added fractionating column and insulation, it allows for better separation and condensation of the individual compounds. This ensures that only the compound with the lower boiling point is completely condensed before the compound with the higher boiling point begins to condense.
By-product of normal aerobic metabolites as superoxide radical (•O2–) are produced by addition of one electron to O2 (a univalent reduction of O2). Superoxide radical (•O2–) is a good reducing molecule but it considered as poor oxidising agent.
The stoma on the leaves will close to preserve the water. This prevents CO2 from being absorbed, which also affects photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is affected by the storage of water. Lack of water affects the amount of oxygen released from the plant during photosynthesis. If there is less water to combine with the carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, then less sugar and oxygen is made.
Bases produce hydroxide ions in an aqueous solution. Strong bases dissolve 100% into the cation and OH- . The hydroxides of the Group I and II metals generally are can be accepted strong bases. These bases fully dissolve in solutions of 0.01 M or less. On the other hand, a weak acid is an acid that give off only some of its hydrogen atoms into the solution, dissolves partially.