Esophagus Lab Report

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Introduction: Physiology is that branch of biology which deals with the functions of living systems. It also seeks to understand the individual development of functions and their alternation and adaptation with the continuously changing environments. The microscopic organisms often rely on molecular diffusion to provide them with nutrients and to remove waste products from them, whereas large organisms require more efficient means of transporting materials within their bodies. This transportation is accomplished using flowing liquids and gases. For example, Oxygen is swept into the lungs through a network of airways wherein the Oxygen diffuses into blood across the walls of alveoli and is then pumped by the heart through an extensive network…show more content…
During the motion of the bolus through esophagus smooth muscles contract behind the bolus to prevent it from being squeezed back into the mouth. Rhythmic unidirectional waves of contractions will work to rapidly force the food into the stomach through esophagus. This process works in one direction only and its sole purpose is to move food from the mouth into the stomach. In the esophagus, two types of peristalsis occur. First, there is a primary peristaltic wave which occurs when the bolus enters the esophagus during swallowing whichforces the bolus down the esophagus and into the stomach in a wave lasting about 8–9 seconds. This primary peristaltic wave travels down to the stomach even if the bolus of food, descends at a greater rate than the wave itself or for some reason gets stuck further up the esophagus. Second, in the event of bolus gets stuck or moves slower than the primary peristaltic wave which can happen when bolus is poorly lubricated, stretch receptors in the esophageal lining are stimulated and a local reflex response causes a secondary peristaltic wave around the bolus, forcing it further down the esophagus. These secondary peristaltic waves will continue indefinitely until the bolus enters the…show more content…
Due attention has not been given to the peristaltic mechanism in an asymmetric channel. Recently, physiologistsobserved that the intra-uterine fluid flow caused by myometrial contractions represents a peristalticmechanism and the myometrial contractions may occur in both symmetric and asymmetric directions. Eytanand Elad[2] have presented a mathematical model of wall induced peristaltic fluid flow in a two-dimensionalchannel with wave trains having a phase difference moving independently on the upper and lower walls tostimulate intra-uterine fluid motion in a sagittal cross-section of the

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