Swirl the solution to ensure that the NaOH is properly dissolved in the deionised water. B) Prepare an Oxalic Acid Solution (approximately 0,05M) 1. Place a clean, dry glass beaker on the electronic scale. 2. Determine the mass of the glass beaker.
In 10 g dried sediment sample added 7 ml 0.2 M NH4Cl solution. A mixture of 100 ml hexane: acetone (1:1) was used as a solvent to extract pesticides with overnight shaking for 12 h on reciprocal or wrist action shaker at 180 rpm. The extract was carefully decanted through activated florisil column (2-3 cm), giving twice wash with25 ml hexane: acetone (1:1) to the sediments. The elute was then washed with 200 ml water and then again aqueous layer was extracted with 50 ml hexane. Finally the hexane layer was washed with 100 ml water and then evaporated to dryness with a vacuum rotary evaporator.
During this step, I observed that there were bubbles in the solution, especially at the bottom of the beaker. After adding the HLC, there solution had a slight yellow tint. Next, I mixed 0.529g of sodium acetate in 3mL of water and added 0.679g of acetic anhydride to the aniline solution and immediately added sodium acetate. The solution was cooled in an ice bath for fifteen minutes. During this time, I noticed the formation
3) Centrifuged at 2500 rpm for 12 mins. Upper hexane layer (supernatant) was transferred carefully into another test tube. 4) Evaporated the hexane under a stream of grade 1 nitrogen gas and added 100 µl of methanol to the residue left and vortexed for 1 min. 5) Injected 100 µl of extract in HPLC vials and closed properly. Standard curves and calculations- Retinol was quantified from standard curves peak area for each vitamin.
After spots on the TLC form, the Rf values are calculated and used to analyze the similarity of the compounds. Results 8. The obtained product was 4-tert-butylbenzyl phenol ether. This leads the unknown compound # 51 to be tert-butyl phenol. 9.
In a typical process, appropriate amounts of SO dye and the catalysts were first mixed in a small amount of distilled water. Then, a certain volume of NaBH4 solution was introduced into the above system to form a 3 mL solution. Here, the concentrations of the SO dye, NaBH4 and the catalyst were 2×10-5 mol L-1, 40 mmol L-1 and 200 mg L-1, respectively. Firstly, the catalytic degradation of SO dye in the absence of Bi2S3 NSs by NaBH4 was studied. A small amount of SO dye was degraded.
Chromatographic Condition 10ml of the extract is now taken to be analyzed using a mass spectrometer and a liquid chromatograph. The analysis of all pesticides was performed using a liquid chromatograph with a software that is essential for data processing of the quantitative as well as qualitative
Phytochemical tests were carried out on the methanol & ethyl acetate extracts of C.mukulusing standard procedure to identify and to confirm the constituents present in these extracts. (Sofowora 1993). Test for Alkaloids Mayer’s test was used to determined alkaloids, 50µl of both methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C.mukul were treated with 1.36g of mercuric chloride and 5g of potassium iodide in 100ml distilled water/Mayer’s reagent and studied for the formation of cream colour precipitate. Wagner’s reagent: 10-50µl of extract was treated with 1.27g of iodine and 2g of potassium iodide in 100ml distilled water. Test for flavonoids NaOH and HCL test was used to detect flavonoids Small amount ofguggulu extract was treated with aqueous NaOH and HCL and observed for the formation of yellow orange colour.
• it is a dehydrating agent ( allow the reaction to move forward towards ester formation ) . 2) The usage of dehydrating agents ( as CaCl or MgSo4) to remove excess water molecules trapped in the ester layer . B) Synthesis of ester using acetic anhydride :- 1- Add 2-3 ml of acetic anhydride in a large dry test tube then add 3 drops of concentrated sulphuric acid and mix. 2- Get any one of these alcohols (1-propanol, 3-methyl-1- butanol, benzyl alcohol, or 1-octanol) in a small dry test tube . 3- Put the large tube in an ice bath and start to add alcohol by an increasing rate .
25 mL of a 1 M phenyl magnesium bromide in tetrahydrofuran was dispensed into the beaker by using a syringe. The resulting mixture was stirred for about 15 minutes when the purple color turned into a brown color permanently. It was then extracted first with 20 mL of dichloromethane and the bottom DCM layer containing the product was reextracted with 10 mL of dichloromethane. The final bottom layer was retained and dried with MgSO4. The drying agent was discarded when the mixture was filtered.