This can be done allowing the child to create a puppet show. As puppets serve a vital role in play therapy children are able to easily project their feelings and thoughts on to puppets (http://pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~drbryce/Play%20Therapy%20Techniques.pdf). This game which was created by Carolyn J. Narcavage, will allow the child to overcome resistance while engaging in the game (Kaduson & Schaefer, 1997). Using puppets to express their inner feelings will create a symbolic client in the therapeutic environment. This would help to remove therapist’s focus on the child where child’s comfort level will increase and allow the child to stay at a safe emotional distance
First myth is introduced as receptive and expressive language which means understanding in a child with Down syndrome is measured by what he/she can say. A large body of research have shown that children with Down syndrome understand more than what they can say. (Martin, Klusek, Estingarriba & Roberts, 2009, cited in Cologon, 2013). Benefits of silent reading are mentioned in this part. It is argued that silent reading helps comprehension due to focus is on pronunciation rather than meaning in oral reading.
Ecological systems theory: This theory looks at a child’s development within the context of the system of relationships that form his or her environment. Bronfenbrenner’s theory defines complex “layers” of environment, each having an effect on a child’s development. This theory has recently been renamed “bioecological systems theory” to emphasize that a child’s own biology is a primary environment fueling her development. In this essay I will be focusing on the interaction between factors in the child’s maturing biology, his immediate family/community environment, and the societal landscape fuels and steers his development. Changes or conflict in any one layer will ripple throughout other layers.
Urie Bronfenbrenner (1979) curiously puts it as “The ecological environment is conceived as a set of nested structures, each inside the nest, like a set of Russian dolls”. Personally after reading his paper, I would consider it as some sort of onion. The reason to being so is that the bulb contributes on how the plant grows and hence, metaphorically a child. The ecological theory consists of microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem and finally the chronosystem. However, Scott Shane (2010) may refute Bronfenbrenner’s ideology as he believes that genes play the major role in deciding an individual’s personality and traits.
Asking questions, or showing his drawing, he was animated and talkative, and use a mix of English and Russian languages during communication. It was interesting to me to watch how children unconsciously switch from one language to another, and that this does not interfere with their interaction at all. For example, Denis mixed the names of colors by asking questions and also used the word bird in both English and Russian. Watching the children, I remembered the explanations given in Chapter 8 Infant and Toddler Language and Literacy. According to Jeffrey Trawick-Smith: ”Diversity in language environments explains the rich variation in communication style and competence during the early years.
MOTSOENENG D.K : 2015217199 gped1623 assignment LECTURER: MONARENG S.D.A An ecological system is a theory about how a child development is affected by their society and the world around them. This theory was developed by Urie Bronfenbrenner who is a Russian psychologist and is regarded as a pioneer in examining family structure an influence to a child’s development into adulthood. His development of the ecological systems is regarded and his greatest contribution to the psychology and child development. This essay intends to analyse Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model of Childs development and its implications to teaching. The four main systems that shape a child’s development .are the microsystem, mesosystem, the exosystem, the macro
The five systems of Urie Bronferbernner’s ecological model play an important role in human development. It consists of microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem and chronosystem. According to Berk (2000), microsystem is meant by the environment a person is living is link bi-directly to them. This system involves interactions and relationship of an individual with their immediate surroundings such as family, peers, school and neighborhood (Berk, 2000). As for mesosystem, it is a system that has a connection between microsystem which is can also be explain by having a parents and school context (Ryan, 2001).
It takes more than one person to raise a child. Landberg (2008:215) shows an illustration of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological system theory. The first component is Macrosystem which is all about community, culture, religion which is exactly some things that explain African philosophy… The second one is exosystem which is all about education and health, this are places that can evaluate a child’s well-being. Mesosytem- extended family, friends, neighbours etc. and lastly is the nuclear family.
In his view, the focus is almost on sustainability and resilience against degradation and the speed of return to equilibrium. The classical ecological definitions seem to believe in the existence of an equilibrium point within the system and regard resilience as preservation of the system in its existing structural state or the speed of the system’s return to its previous state before pressures and changes being applied. In other words, the long-term