This theory is concerned with how individuals learn large amounts of meaningful material from verbal/textual presentations in a school setting in contrast to theories developed in the context of laboratory experiments. According to Ausubel, learning is based upon the kinds of super ordinate, representational, and combinatorial processes that occur during the reception of information. He also explains that new learning or acquisition of knowledge is related to relevant ideas in the existing cognitive structure. Cognitive structures represent the residue of all learning experiences; forgetting occurs because certain details get integrated and lose their individual identity. Constructivist Learning Theory.
One curriculum that some schools follow is known as an Anti-Bias Curriculum. The Anti-Bias Curriculum was created to nature young children and teach and educate them about issues of diversity and equity in the classroom. There are four main goals of an Anti-Bias Curriculum, they are, to gain knowledge of a confident self-identity, gain experience of interacting with people from diverse backgrounds, think critically about bias and learn to stand up for others and themselves in a time where they face bias (Hohensee & Derman-Sparks, 1992). When establishing an Anti-Bias, classroom setting and learning environment for student’s teachers go through a process of four identifiable phases.
The RTI model relates to differentiated instruction because both concepts encourage teachers to provide multiple avenues for student success. With differentiated instruction, teachers are encouraged to take a key concept and provide different styles of learning for their students, knowing that each student learns in a different way. It also encourages teachers to sometimes change their teaching style in order to reach the educational needs of each student every year. Within the RTI model, teachers are encouraged to understand these student differences, which may often times be from learning disabilities or behavioral needs. Because of this, they are encouraged to put an action plan in place for struggling students that provide alternative ways to learn concepts, in order to help that student achieve educational success.
I. Lev Vygotsky's, cultural-historical theory of cognitive development is focused on the role of culture in the development of higher mental functions, such as speech and reasoning in children. His theory is sometimes referred to as having a sociocultural perspective, which means the theory emphasizes the importance of society and culture for promoting cognitive development. He emphasized the role of social interactions and culture in development. And he believed that adults in a society foster children's cognitive development in an intentional and systematic manner by engaging them in challenging and meaningful activities. II.
The data put away in a memory in a sorted out, significant way. Here instructors and originators assumes distinctive parts in learning process. Instructors are facilitators for helping learning in association and arranging data in an ideal way. While originators utilizes propelled methods like analogies, various leveled relationship and help learners to obtain new data to the earlier information. Overlooking was specified as a failure to recover data from memory, it might be memory misfortune to evaluate information.
An interesting discovery by Wittrock was that motivation by a teacher is only helpful when a child can link their comprehension of a new concept to their own efforts. The added praising following a student’s understanding of a new concept creates a continues interest in learning (Wittrock, 349). If a teacher does the opposite of this study and praises a child for times when they fail to fully grasp a concept but instead just repeat information they do not fully understand the child will be less likely to have future meaning-based learning. The issues brought forward regarding motivation and the generative learning theory highlight the importance of a teacher to regularly check that students are truly comprehending the information presented in class prior to giving them praise. Some great strategies to teat comprehension include asking the student to elaborate on the topic or give a unique personal created example for the
Lev Vygotsky provided many contributions to development that impacted what we know about how children learn and the kinds of environment that should be provided for optimal development of language. Vygotsky believed that the environment provides children with information that supports language development. Similarly, he theorized that language begins with communication between children and individuals in their environment. He developed the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) which is the distance between what a child can do independently and what a child can do with support from an adult. Therefore, the main role of an adult is to help children bridge the distance between what they can do independently and what they can do with some support.
Antonio seems to on average perform below grade level in both reading and writing. However, his behavior problems is one of the main contributing factors to this situation. Antonio has a hard time maintain focus and not only will he not stay on task but he often times becomes a distraction to his peers. Antonio also tends to sit on his knees or legs and dazes off during lectures or reading time. For example, after having directions repeated twice to the class as a whole, Antonio fails to meet the needs, requirements, and understandings to complete the task at hand.
Many disciplines utilize different terminology to describe essentially the same process, which can add to confusion when selecting and implementing an active learning approach. These differences can be attributed to the disciplines they were promulgated from or the organization that they emanated from. Cooperative Learning Cooperative learning is an approach that involves a small group of leaners working together as a team to solve a problem, complete a task or accomplish a learning activity that will improve their understanding of the subject matter. Every member is responsible not only by the words but also for helping teammates learn (Artzt and Newman, 1990). Accordingly, in cooperative classrooms, the students are expected to help each other, to discuss and argue with sharing their ideas.it helps to assess each other’s current knowledge and fill in gaps in each other understands.
Another issue with these tests is they do not measure knowledge or skills needed out in the real world which causes some teachers to not teach them. This lack of knowledge and skills are ruining students’ chances of being successful out of school since majority of them do not know the basic skills needed to function in