Exemplars of constructivist theory may be found in the works of John Dewey, Maria Montessori and David Kolb. Dewey (1859–1952) believed education must engage with an expand experience; those methods used to educate must provide for exploration, thinking, and reflection; and that the interaction with the environment is necessary for learning. He advocated the learning process of experiential learning through real life experience to construct and conditionalize knowledge, which is consistent with the Constructivists (“Constructivism,”). Montessori (1870–1952) emphasized the value of experiential learning to conditionalize knowledge: “Scientific observation has established that education is not what the teacher gives; education is a natural process spontaneously carried out by the
It encourages learners to build their own knowledge in order to gain understanding that they may not receive when actively listening in class or reading from a prescribed textbook. “Explains why students do not learn deeply by listening to a teacher, or reading from a textbook” (Roy, 2017). The main theorists that propose Constructivism are John Dewey, Maria Montessori and David Kolb. Constructivism encourages learners to explore the world around in efforts to gain knowledge on particular subjects, thus forming what is known as Discovery Learning in opposition of the children learning passively. An example of a Constructivist activity that may be executed in the classroom is experimentation.
Vocational educational system had been traditionally base on behaviorist pedagogies. These approaches were predicted on ideological view of vocational education in teaching students “The right work and moral habits”. In spite the association toward constructivist theories of pedagogy. The important core of constructivist is that learner can actively construct their knowledge from their experiences. They look at different ideas of constructivist theory in which include social constructivism, cognitive constructivism and radical
In other words, most researches firmly believe that knowledge is constructed, but some (e.g. main stream instructional designers) do not adopt an instructional design that is labelled "constructivist". Typically, a constructivist teaching strategy is based on the belief that students learn best when they gain knowledge through exploration and active learning. Hands-on materials are used instead of textbooks, and students are encouraged to think and explain their reasoning instead of memorizing and reciting facts. Education is centered on themes and concepts and the connections between them, rather than isolated information.
The teaching methods based on constructivist approach are very effective to help students understand, recall and apply the essential information, concepts and skills. They are used to make lessons interesing, activate students ' prior knowledge, help to develop and organise information and promote questioning. Slavin( 1994,p. 237-239) discusses the important concepts of this approach as mentioned below: Advance organisers: general statements given before instruction that links new information to existing knowledge to help students process new information by activating background knowledge, suggesting relevance and encouraging accommodation; Analogies: highlighting the similarities between things that are otherwise unlike, to help students learn new information by relating it to concepts they already have; and Elaboration: the process of reflection on the new material in a way that connects it with existing
Constructivism Constructivism is another theory whose development took place at the same time as that of behaviorism, i.e., approximately 1910-1920 (Gordon, 2014). According to Gordon (2014), it is a revolutionary approach to issues related to knowledge and knowing. Humans have an innate drive to make meaning out of their lives. Therefore, certain assumptions about human learning and its nature guide constructivist learning theories and teaching methods. Learning to constructivist is an active process aiming to develop learners’ new ideas based on their current and experience and knowledge (Brandon & All, 2010).
Lev Vygotsky, a soviet psychologist came up with the socio-cultural theory, which is another strong theory emphasizing child development and is seen as a major counter theory to Piaget 's work (Saul McLeod, 2004). Theories of these two cognitive psychologists have been compared and contrasted on different levels. This essay will look into the differences and similarities between their theories. These two psychologist 's theories differ from each other in numerous ways. To begin with, Jean Piaget 's cognitive development theory proposes that children adapt to their environment by actively constructing knowledge as they perceive and explore their surroundings.
Investigations on its implications to various fields and levels of education have been undertaken. Findings in various researches suggest that constructivist-based teaching methods ensure better outcomes of the teaching and learning process. The importance of researches on physics education have proven the effectiveness of constructivist approaches in yielding higher achievement of students. In a constructivist learning environment, each student who actively constructs knowledge, develops skills and integrates values. This kind of environment promotes reflective thinking, respecting others’ ideas, having an independent opinion, skillful problem solving, collaborative work, responsibility for one’s conceptions, and community involvement (Jucevičienė, P. & Karenauskaitė, V.,
Trafficking in people is common all over the world. This has happened in every country in the world, although the situation in some countries is getting worse. Additionally, human trafficking is the 3rd largest international crime. There are over one million people trafficked annually. Millions of men, women, children
They are active creators of their own knowledge. The effectiveness of this theory is proven by many researches, and one of these studies is that of Tyagi (2013). In his study “Influence of Constructivism in Teaching on Academic Achievement of Primary Students”, the constructivist-based teaching