Lev Vygotsky, a soviet psychologist came up with the socio-cultural theory, which is another strong theory emphasizing child development and is seen as a major counter theory to Piaget 's work (Saul McLeod, 2004). Theories of these two cognitive psychologists have been compared and contrasted on different levels. This essay will look into the differences and similarities between their theories. These two psychologist 's theories differ from each other in numerous ways. To begin with, Jean Piaget 's cognitive development theory proposes that children adapt to their environment by actively constructing knowledge as they perceive and explore their surroundings.
The author made much use of ethos in his writing, and he wrote to inform the audience that has a background on science about the advancing/developing process of gene mutation. Hayes states that many other scientists, biochemists,
Piaget 's theory of cognitive development is a broad theory about the nature and development of human intelligence. Although it is commonly known as a developmental stage theory, it also engages with the nature of knowledge itself and how individuals get to acquire, construct, and use the knowledge obtained. Piaget state that cognitive development is an advancing reorganization of mental processes as a result of biological maturation and experiences experienced in the individual environment. Children build an perception of the world around them, then experience differences between what they have known and what they find out in their surroundings. Apart from that Piaget argues that the concept that cognitive development is at the center of human organism and language is dependent on cognitive development.
In general Paige’s theory stresses conscious mental processes. Cognitive processes are influenced by biological maturation .Four stages of cognitive development in children. Assimilation and accommodation underlie how children understand the world, adapt to it, and organize their experiences. Wadsworth (2004) suggests that when Piaget talked about the development of a person 's mental processes, he was referring to increases in the number and complexity of the schemata that a person had learned. Piaget emphasized the importance of schemas in cognitive development, and described how they were developed or acquired.
Thus, learning may be considered as a process, instead of a set of accurate and practical knowledge. From a cognitive learning perspective, learning involves the transformation of information in the environment into knowledge that is stored in the mind. Cognitive theories of learning Swiss development psychologist John Piaget (1896-1980) was one of the first people to examine cognitive development systematically. Based on Piaget 's theory, children have a fundamental mental structure on which all subsequent learning and knowledge is based. In Piaget 's view, children think differently compared to adults.
In 1924, he began work at the institute of psychology in Moscow where he focused on the problems of educational practice, particularly these of handicapped children. Vygotsky’s socio cultural theory asserts that an individual’s development can only be understood in the context of his or her social and cultural experiences; there is always a dynamic interplay between one’s socio cultural context and one’s personal development (Rogoff, 2003). Vygotsky introduced the term zone of proximal development (ZPD) which is the distance between a child’s actual development and the child’s potential development. This theory also talks about scaffolding (building a child), collaborative learning (working in a group), as well as intersubjectivity which is a shared understanding or a mutually agreed upon way of approaching a
Piaget’s Theory Piaget’s (1936) theory of cognitive development explains how a child constructs a mental model of the world. Cognitive Development Piaget's theory of cognitive development is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence. To Piaget, cognitive development was a progressive reorganization of mental processes resulting from biological maturation and environmental experience. Piaget’s Views He believed that children construct an understanding of the world around them, experience discrepancies between what they already know and what they discover in their environment, and then adjust their ideas accordingly. Piaget claimed that cognitive development is at the center of the human organism and
We as individuals and humans will encounter several things throughout the course of our life that will impact and shape us, weather it be religious views, our upbringing, or life events, all play an important role in our development. Urie Bronfenbrenner, a psychologist, believed that how a child and his environment interacted with each other will influence how a child will develop and grow. In Bronfenbrenner’s theory of human development he separates a child's environment into five systems they are, the microsystem, this is the child’s immediate environment, the mesosystem, which is the interactions and connections between the child and the microsystem, the exosystem, which is the system that the child will not directly be in but will have
Two of the most recognized cognitive psychologist, Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, developed theories that addressed cognitive development and learning among children. (Ballinger, 2013) Jean Piaget proposed that children proceed through four stages based on maturation and experience. Piaget’s theory is guided by assumptions of how learners interact with their environment and how they integrate new knowledge and information into existing knowledge. Briefly, Piaget proposed that children are active learners who construct knowledge from their environments, they learn through assimilation and accommodation, and complex cognitive development occurs through equilibration, the interaction with physical and social environments. (William, 1996) Piaget’s theory is evident in the case study as they discuss which animals should be placed in which enclosure with each.
And c_ij = √(〖(Xi-Xj)〗^2+〖(Yi-Yj)〗^2 )  Genetic Algorithm Genetic algorithms (GAs) were invented by the computer scientist John Holland in the 1960s and were developed by Holland and his students and colleagues at the University of Michigan in the 1960s and the 1970s and by 1992 John Koza has used genetic algorithm to evolve programs to perform certain tasks. He called his method "genetic programming". It is a type of heuristic technique and adaptive search algorithm that is used to solve optimization problems. The genetic algorithm is a class of evolutionary algorithm that is inspired by Charles Darwin theories on evolution which states that the survival of an organism is affected by rule "the strongest species that survives". Why Genetic Algorithm Genetic algorithm can be used to find good approximation solutions to problems that cannot be easily solved using other techniques.