Source: My Pegagogic Creed, John Dewey, 1897. (Page 2) Dewey believed that child-centred learning would help them build on their identified strengths and argued that children were unable to learn information unless they could apply it to their own lives and experiences. The active application in this way would ensure that the child had internalised the learning. On the same lines, he also viewed the construction of such knowledge as being subject to trial-and-error interactions between a child and his or her
Jean Piaget, known for his interest in the Epistemology in children is seen as the pioneer of Developmental Psychology. Piaget 's Cognitive development theory led to a great deal of research work in the field of educational philosophy . But in the discipline of Psychology, every theory has been faced with a counter theory or an alternative. So is the case with Piaget 's theory. Lev Vygotsky, a soviet psychologist came up with the socio-cultural theory, which is another strong theory emphasizing child development and is seen as a major counter theory to Piaget 's work (Saul McLeod, 2004).
Piaget considered the concrete stage a major turning point in the child's cognitive development, because it marks the beginning of logical or operational thought. This means the child can work things out internally in their head (rather than physically try things out in the real world).Children can conserve number (age 6), mass (age 7), and weight (age 9). Conservation is the understanding that something stays the same in quantity even though its appearance
Piaget 's theory of cognitive development is a broad theory about the nature and development of human intelligence. Although it is commonly known as a developmental stage theory, it also engages with the nature of knowledge itself and how individuals get to acquire, construct, and use the knowledge obtained. Piaget state that cognitive development is an advancing reorganization of mental processes as a result of biological maturation and experiences experienced in the individual environment. Children build an perception of the world around them, then experience differences between what they have known and what they find out in their surroundings. Apart from that Piaget argues that the concept that cognitive development is at the center of human organism and language is dependent on cognitive development.
Thus, learning may be considered as a process, instead of a set of accurate and practical knowledge. From a cognitive learning perspective, learning involves the transformation of information in the environment into knowledge that is stored in the mind. Cognitive theories of learning Swiss development psychologist John Piaget (1896-1980) was one of the first people to examine cognitive development systematically. Based on Piaget 's theory, children have a fundamental mental structure on which all subsequent learning and knowledge is based. In Piaget 's view, children think differently compared to adults.
Thomas (2005) wrote that early in Piaget’s career he worked with children and his observations and interactions with the students led him to the theory that a young person 's cognitive processes are inherently different from those of adults (pp. 188-9). According to Ahmad, Ch, Batool, Sittar, and Malik (2016), Piaget showed that when compared to adults, young children think in differently and he then came to the conclusion that cognitive development was an ongoing process which occurred due to maturation and interaction with the environment (p. 72). Piaget theorized that each child was born with a basic mental structure that would serve as the foundation upon which all future learning and knowledge would be constructed. He developed his Cognitive Development Theory to explain the process by which the infant would eventually develop into an individual
Jean Piaget is exceptionally known for his contributions to the world of studying developmental psychology, especially in children. He is most known for his four-stage theory on cognitive development, a widespread theory about the development of the human intelligence. His “stage theory” is a form of discontinuous development, which means that opposed to continuous development, it is not an ongoing progression of gradual changes throughout life; rather certain behaviors and skills occur within distinct stages of life. Piaget was curious as to how knowledge grew as we progressed throughout life. Piaget was also known for his theories on moral development in children, he has come up with a three-stage theory and has done several studies to further expand upon his research.
The third aspect is the social development which can be explained by Erickson's theory. Erickson's theory has eight stages which depend on each other. Also, these stages describe child development and contain two sides(negative and positive) that can be determined by the way that the infant is developed. Finally, there are some factors which affect the infants' development, Parenting attitude and style in children are one of them. Direct interaction is the most efficient way of influencing the children as well as making up the character of the children.
The second theorist introduced is Vygotsky and his theory was influenced by Karl Marx’s proposal “that historical changes in society have significant impact on how people think and behave” (215). Piaget used a clinical method, in order to seek his theory of cognitive development. This allowed Piaget to understand how children and adolescents learn. On the other hand, Vygotsky used tangible items like stories, paper, and writing utensils to determine how the society would move forward. An educational difference from Vygotsky is that parents, teachers, and other adults has having an impact on how children learn and grow.
This theory tend to put the focus on the individuals that compose the group and each individual background regarding morals, values, beliefs and religions. In regards to education, this theory would provide the kids with a broader way of thinking. Instead of having one correct answer to a question, they are open to all answers that may stem from children of different histories than those of the dominant group. Some say, “Multiculturalism, therefore represents a threat to individual liberty, a loss of understanding involving citizenship, and a threat to democracy.” By focusing on each individual, those against this theory find that citizenship, or the status of being a legal part of a society, and democracy, or a system of government by population or those eligible, typically through representatives that have been elected, will have the potential to be destroyed. This form of education would allow the children to become aware and respectful of outside ideas other than those present in their personal life.