Firstly through; being very attentive to the children, identifying their needs, while also noticing and understanding variances in their behaviour and responding accordingly. In correlation to this teachers should develop self-awareness to separate their own feelings from those of the children Lillard (2005). Secondly, observation is used to evaluate children‘s interests, for instance, the teacher would note whether or not the child is interested in an object, how he/she displays this interest and how long they are interested in it. As a result, teachers could also use observations to assess children‘s work in progress, though this must be done subtly as even a glance could disrupt the concentration of a child engaged on a
Three main assumptions exist in the maturational theory including biological development basis, alternating between good and bad years, and personality development correlated with body types. During the mid-1900s, maturational theory firmly affected learning. Not until the children attain a mental age ranging from six and a half years they were thought not to be ripe for evaluations. Effectively, for the children who were not ready for reading, preparedness activities were also enhanced for them to get ready. Unfortunately, such nonsense currently happens in some of our kindergarten, preschools, and probably primary-level classrooms.
Haney, Rusell and Bebell (2004), used the drawings to explore the child’s perspective of the school and the learning environment. These researchers show how using the drawings made by the children can help not only to understand them but also the learning environment as well as their school better. This can act as a reference tool for the teachers to help make the environment better suited to the child. However, these can’t always be relied upon. As we can see clearly, using children’s drawings can be beneficial in many ways but do not come without disadvantages and therefore these should be considered before using these drawings to assess the emotional state, perceptions etc of the child.
Introduction and Outline This essay’s purpose is to highlight how school curriculum is altered in order to include a student with additional learning needs. Every student is unique and for that reason a teacher must differentiate the curriculum to suit the needs of student with a specific learning difficulty. Dyslexia is the learning difficulty which will be examined theoretically and methodically in this essay. This essay will examine the different learning theories of how to engage a child with dyslexia in the classroom. In addition, this essay will investigate Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development and Vygotsky’s Social Constructivism.
The focus of formative assessment is on the learning process, the development and improvement of knowledge and skills and their application in a range of contexts. It allows students to test out ideas and to take risks without there being consequences for their final grade, and so it relates to a preliminary activity which leads eventually to a summative assessment. In his study, Brown (2004) claims that summative assessment accounts for the majority of classroom assessments. It helps evaluate students during their attempt to reach the competence ang skills so that they can keep track of that process. Summative assessment is focused on making judgments about what learning has occurred and so it contributes to the final grade a student receives.
Cognitive reactions: Piaget (1959) claimed that a child's language development is mainly related with his cognitive development. 2.Social interactionist: Vygotsky (1962) stated that language development is related to social interaction as well as the intellectual factors. The children social instrument is language, they develop their language with interaction to more capable adults and parents. The nature of educational games include physical activity, cooperation, competition cognitive and because these two are similar to each other, he mentioned that children start language development from social level by social interaction, then they move to a personal level. When the teacher helps his students to solve a language problem, they move higher from their independent to the guided level.
But a single score in traditional tests may reveal students’ different understanding of the subject matter and may show that they have employed different strategic processes. Sole dependence on tests consisting of response-choice items may lead to instruction that emphasizes recall of facts and the application of memorized routines or procedures. Cowie and Moreland (2015) in his book stated that for students to become discerning, classroom assessment needs to ensure students experience and exercise individual and decision making. It must be applied to their everyday life and used for a long life learning. However, if assessment requires synthesis of information, divergent thinking and evaluation, instruction is more likely to include activities that promote these skills.
There are different instructional approaches a teacher can adopt depending on what they would like their class to know. The book “Children Moving” by George Graham, Shirley Ann Holt and Melissa Parker presents different approaches to teaching PE which help stimulate learning. Interactive teaching is when the teacher models and shows the students what to do while the children practice, teachers guide their students learning through observation and evaluation. This technique is “effective when the teachers goal is to have students learn a specific skill and perfrom is correctly.” (Graham, Holt and Parker, 2013, p. 147). Another form of teaching that help build a classes learning is task teaching, this is when different stations are organised where the child can develop and practise different skills.
The National Scientific Council on the Developing Child (2011) has highlighted that children require social and emotional skills to thrive at school. Although some aspects of these skills to some extent are predetermined by genes, early childhood settings can greatly influence them. Guralnick (2010) supports this theory as he too says children with delays can struggle with social competency and by supporting the development of their social skills we are consequentially supporting both their social and cognitive development. Early childhood educators are acutely aware of the importance of social and emotional skills. However, what I did not know, was its link to the ‘executive function’ and the purpose of this function.
“Through problem solving and exploring, students take on an active role to create, integrate, and generalize knowledge. Instead of receiving information through lecture or drill and practice, students create broader application for skills through activities that encourage critical thinking, experiences and problem solving.” (Bicknell- Holmes & Hoffman, 2000). “The roles of students and teacher changes in the discovery learning however it is still difficult for many teachers to accept” (Hooks, 1994). Dewey (1997) describes learning as “actions where knowledge and ideas materialize as learners interact with other learners in an environment by doing this they build their knowledge by drawing meaningful conclusions from past experiences that is important.” According to Berding (2000) “children were motivated to actively learn and that education only served to make more learning possible. He believed that mental development was achieved through social interaction.” Piaget (1973) postulated that “from discovery comes understanding and without understanding there will be no creativity hence the individual is caught in