Scaffolding is mean to give necessary support to enable learner to complete the task and develop understandings that they would not able to manage by their own. The term of scaffolding shows that the quality of cognitive support which adult(specially teacher) provided during child’s learning. And how it help to stimulate children’s internalisation of mental functions. The point of view here is that teacher through their sequencing of teaching activities and through the quality of their assistance and support, it is able to challenge and extend what children are able to do. It is after children participating the activities, the learning will occur and children able to internalise the new understanding.
To facilitate learning of children, patterns of learning can be modified and more elements of cognitive training can be added in play of students. On the other hand, different students may achieve different levels of cognitive skills. It is important for teachers to notice the difference of progress of students. Different levels of intervention of framing of knowledge can be adopted by teachers, which influence students’ understanding of knowledge (Arcidiacono, & Perret-Clermont, 2009). Next, since only performance of one subject is observed, it is suggested to enlarge the scale of research and observe the performance of different participants.
Vygotsky believed in the sociocultural theory that children learn actively and through hands-on experiences, and that parents and caregivers and peers have a role in a child’s development. He said children learn best when new information is scaffolded for them. He called the area of cognitive development, from where a child starts out to where he could get to with scaffolding, the Zone of Proximal Development. The third giant is Maria Montessori. A very important phrase in the Montessori philosophy is: “Teach me how to do it myself”.
Active learning is a set of strategies that motivates students to learn by their own with the help of Knowledgeable others. The following examples of active learning are being used in this study; discovery learning, problem-based learning, experiential learning, and inquiry-based instruction, think-pair-share, quick-writes, polling, cooperative learning, and student presentations. Another theory for which this study is also anchored is attributed to Frederick Herzberg the Motivation Theory. It is concerned with the processes that describe why and how human behavior is activated and directed. Motivated learners can learn almost everything.
Jean Piaget, is a psychologist who has influenced many teaching techniques through his research, his view based on how he believes children's minds work and develops. Piaget's main. Focus was on the process of a child's thinking and the active role of the learner, this particular study has been very influential particularly in education theory. Piaget gave a particular insight into the children simply growing up and looking at the children's capacity to understanding their world. Piaget believes children and their ways of thinking doesn't develop entirely and doesn't show a smooth pattern, Piaget believes there are points to each stage moving into new areas as they develop and investigate the world around them.
Giving choices and allowing children to choose their daily activities helps to build autonomy. Hedrick (1996) suggest that providing choices for children is a fundamental aspect of high-quality early childhood curriculum. It is also cited in as one of the principles of developmentally appropriate practice which states, “Following their own interests, children choose among various activities…” (Bredekamp & Copple, 1996). As we provide children with choices in their daily activity, educators need to understand the importance of the choices given to children in their class. Such classroom set up reflects a child - centered approach rather than teacher - centered.
Critical reflection on two approaches – Reggio Emilia Approach and Forest School Approach Reggio Emilia Approach Reggio Emilia Approach is an educational philosophy which considers children as capable, innovative and curious learners with intrinsic motivations in learning about the unknowns surrounding them (Mitchell and Carroll, 2003). It aimed to promote children’s learning through the development of “the hundred languages” of children (Edwards, Gandini and Forma, 2012). Features Learning spaces, social exchanges, projects, art materials, documentation and collaborative teaching style are the core values of the Approach (Mitchell and Carroll, 2003). In this approach, spaces involved in students’ daily lives were considered as extensions of classrooms where learning takes place in (Mitchell and Carroll, 2003). Social exchanges such as interactive activities, conflicts and communications were encouraged (Gandini, 1993).
PBL is a type of teaching curriculum based on making students to face problems in certain framework then ask from them to find appropriate solutions by providing a good educational environment to them. The purpose from this strategy is to motivate the active independent learning and thinking of students, and to improve
Introduction Learning theories are the core guidance on planning the educational system. With the knowledge of the general principles,educators can manipulate their knowledge more efficiently to meet with diversity in learning circumstances. Theory by general definition is a the establishment and an explanation of the way brain acquiring knowledge. It is a sequence of a hypothesis that corresponding to each other which should be able to outline, clarify, predict or have control of the scenario. Learning theories defined as a description of learning and the approach towards the way a person obtain, assemble and use their skills and knowledge.