Vygotsky (1962) assumed that knowledge is cultural; he took a socio-cultural approach in his study with children. This approach can be briefly described as “co-operative” and “cultural.” Vygotsky (1962) asserted that the cultures lead to the development of individuals, including their thoughts, languages and reasoning processes. These abilities are developed through social interactions with significant others including parents and teachers, therefore, they represent the shared knowledge of a given culture. Vygotsky (1978) studied the development of children from their environment and through their interaction with others, he found that what are given and what happens in the social environment (e.g., dialogues, actions, and activities), help children learn, develop and
Introduction A toy/game that is interactive helps the child develop in many different parts of his body and mind. We will learn about the types of play for an early childhood aged kid. I will tell you about the game and how it is used. In addition, how the game helps with the child’s development. Type of Play Play is very important in the child’s growth and development (Myers 2012).
The researchers of this study have gather two theories that are applicable to second language acquisition which is for learning the English language. In learning the English language one must also know the vocabulary words in this language. The following texts will show the theories gathered and how it relates to the study. Dual Coding Theory This theory was proposed by Allan Paivio (1971), generally it is a theory of cognition and mind; but it has aspect that tackles how an individual learns. Dual coding theory explains that there is a link between imagery and memory which helps the students to gain knowledge more effectively.
Cognitive learning strategies involve the mental or physical manipulation of the material to be learned. The strategies are resourcing, grouping, note taking, and elaboration. Teachers model, rehears, and support students the use of learning strategies in the classroom. Social/affective learning strategies interconnect the cognitive and the sociocultural dimensions of the biography. This kind of strategies considers two levels: the individual level and the interactive level.
Constructivists pointed out that having a constructivist classroom and learning activities encourage the interactions of the students’ prior and new learning and understanding that leads to new knowledge that is applicable in situations in, or outside of, school activities. Cognitive Domain of Learning The cognitive domain involves knowledge and the development of the intellectual skills. This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual activities and skills (Bloom, 1964). Six of the major categories arranged from the simplest behavior to the most complex are the following: 1. Knowledge: The ability to recall data or information.
Pintrich & Schunk (1996) say that these cognitive theories are homeostatic since there is a need “to make behaviors consistent” (p. 50). As Woolfolk (1987) claims that attribution theories are cognitive theories “concerning how we explain behavior and outcomes, especially successes and failures” (p. 316). These theories describe how the individual‘s explanations, justifications, and excuses influence motivation. Bernard Weiner is one of the important educational psychologists responsible for relating attribution theory to school learning (as mentioned by Woolfolk, 1987). According to Weiner, most of the causes to which students attribute their successes or failures can be characterized along three different dimensions: as internal or external (inside or outside the person), as stable
Human development refers to the progress that human beings make in their lives. Alternatively, childhood development is the process through which a child advances from infancy to independence. This type of development has different domains, namely, physical (changes in the body), cognitive (changes in thinking), social (changes in the way an individual relate to others) and emotional (changes in an individual’s personality or feelings) domains (Woolfolk, 2012). These domains uniquely interact in a way that a child’s progress in one area, leads to achievement in another field. For instance, when a child learns how to walk or talk, he or she is exposed to a new environment that advances their development.
Cognitive Developmental Perspective : A fundamental assumption of the cognitive development perspective driven by theories is that reciprocal interaction among children around suitable academic tasks creates growth in the knowledge of concepts and critical skills (Slavin, 2011). Vygotsky’s notion of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) is meaningful to learning. Such learning happens through interaction with each other in the ZPD. Vygotsky (1978) defines the ZPD as the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers. (Vygotsky, 1978 : 86).
Sociocultural theory focuses not only how adults and peers influence individual learning, but also, on how cultural beliefs and attitudes influences how instruction and learning take place. Vygotsky theory is children are born with basic biological constraints on their minds. Each culture provides what he referred to as ‘tools of intellectual adaptation.’ These tools allow students to use their basic mental abilities in a way that is adaptive to the culture in they which they live. For example, while one culture might emphasize memory strategies such as note-taking, other cultures might use tools like reminders or rote memorization. Vygotsky placed a greater emphasis on how social factors influence development, he stressed the essential role that social interactions play in cognitive
Psycholinguists believe that children are born with the ability to learn and engage actively with a language, take the initiative to respond, and make meaning. Such practice is known as protoconversations; which is the conversations between infants and caregivers. The way infants make certain movements to express understanding shows that infants have a coherent organized mind that specifies the timing and form of body movement to communicate before they even know the language (Gillen, 158-9). For that reason, the linguist Noam Chomsky, believes that children are born with an inherited ability to learn any language as it is already imprinted on the child’s mind and therefore; Chomsky suggests that every child has a ‘Language Acquisition Device,’ that has the major principles of a language and its grammatical structures into the child’s brain, so children only learn the vocabulary and apply the syntactic structure to form sentences