the common assumption in psychology before Piaget's theory, it was that children are merely less competent thinkers than adults. (5) According to Piaget, children are born with the basic mental structure on which all following learning and knowledge are based. (5) Piaget's theory consists of four stages cognitive development. The first stage called Sensorimotor stage, it is from birth to two years. During this stage, infants are aware only of what is in front of them, they just pay attention to what they are seeing, doing, or physically interacting with.
In this essay, I will be discussing about Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, as well as Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development. After which I will evaluate the effectiveness of individual work and peer collaboration as a learning strategy. I will also be offering my opinion on the collaborative learning process and how children should be grouped. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development focuses on the four different stages of normal intellectual development ranging from infancy to adulthood. It highlights the natural developments of a child’s cognitive process and how they gain knowledge.
The aim of this essay is also to explain the developmental milestones focusing mainly on fine and motor development and to bring out what contributes to delays in reaching the milestones, assessing development of children from birth to the age of three. Piagetian/cognitive approach The way children develops takes place in many areas including the physical or motor skills, speech and language, social and emotional, cognitive and intellectual abilities (kid sense child development 2008). Due to these stages of development Piaget came up with a cognitive approach to further explain child development. Cognitive development is when one gets the quality to learn, process information, think and remember with time (Lynn and Wolf 2009). Jean Piaget came up with four stages of cognitive development but
Abstract Early childhood education (ECE) is a category of educational program which relates to the teaching of little children in their preschool years. It comprises of many activities and experiences designed to assist in the cognitive and social development of preschoolers before they start elementary school. In most early childhood programs and schools, technology will be part of the learning background of the future. To make sure this new technology is used effectively, we must assure that teachers are fully trained and supported. In this paper, theoretical perspectives of child development are discussed with the basic elements of learning program.
Through the developmental study of the child, Jean Piaget composed the Theory of Cognitive Development to illustrate how a child constructs an understanding of the world around them. I aim to describe the key components of Piaget’s theory in order to comprehend how a child establishes their own world and also how the Theory of Cognitive Development might influence me when working with babies, children or adolescents in the future. The aim of Piaget’s theory was to demonstrate the constancy of cognitive structuring in children at different stages in their lives over a long period of time. Piaget based his studies on his interests in the qualitative characteristics of development and also the qualitative difference in children’s thinking. Piaget
My Views about these theories: To start with, I believe that Piaget 's goal is to explain the mechanisms by which the infant, and then the child, develops into an individual who can reason and think using hypotheses. This is because the child is an active learner in his/her development process as the teacher will be acting only as a facilitator. • Piaget believed that children go through 4 universal stages of cognitive development. A child 's cognitive development is about constructing a mental image of the world around them this keep on changing as the child matures. • Furthermore, Piaget also talked about Discovery learning.
• Children can now conserve and think logically but only with practical aids. Formal operational (12+): • From age 12 to 16 and onwards is the formal operational stage. • Adolescents use symbols related to abstract concepts. • They can think about multiple variables in symbols related to abstract concepts. Four key concepts of Piaget’s that are applicable to learning at any age: - Assimilation - Accommodation - Equilibration - Schemas Cognitive development is a complex process comprising three main concepts affecting the development process: assimilation, accommodation and equilibration.
Physical development Arnold Gesell - The mental and physical development of a child is a parallel orderly process. Nature vs Nurture – The process of maturational development is made up of internal and external factors. Intrinsic factors are including the following factors; mental and physical growth, learning styles, personality, temperament and genetics. At the same time certain factors can also influence development, these factors are; environment, health conditions, family background, parenting styles, influences of cultures and experiences with other peers and adults at a young age. Sequence – Gesell’s Maturational Theory tells us that all children will go through the same sequence or pattern of growth and development, however the rate at which they grow and develop will differ from child to child.
Cognitive can be explained as a process of mental thinking of knowing, remembering, perception, memory, judgement and knowledge. Social cognitive for young children can be say as the roles for children’s social and emotional development. It is important to understand how was a child’s environment can affect their development. For the current development of cognitive is between the relationships of pretend play to cognitive development because it can explore some cognitive components. According from Bergen & Coscia (2001), it is more likely that pretend play engages many areas of the brain because it involves emotion, cognition, language, and sensorimotor actions, and thus it may promote the development of dense synaptic connections.
The idea that children could make their own particular bank of information was initially mooted by Piaget who trusted that individual children were youthful examiners of their reality who explored different avenues regarding their surroundings keeping in mind the end goal to assemble a thankfulness and comprehension of it (Moore, 2000). He expressed that there were particular stages in children 's development (sensorimotor, 0 - 2 years of age; preoperational, 2 – 6 years of age; cement operational, 7 - 11 years of age; formal operational, 11+) (Jardine, 2006) through which children added to their convictions and how to express them; it likewise permitted them to sharpen their coherent speculation as a consequence of changing their convictions