Theorists who support this theory state, early childhood experiences play a major part in later development of a child’s personality, even if it is buried in there unconscious. Psychodynamic Theorists also believe that children go through qualitatively distinct stages in their development. In my classroom, how I could apply this theory is by engaging the child on who they think they are, and how it will affect their future. Identity plays a major role in this theory, by engaging the child on who they think they are, I feel I will be able to assess their ability to learn. The humanistic theory
“This theory postulates that the gap between social/emotional maturity, and greater affiliation with other delinquent peers via social mimicry” (Cruise et al., 2008). This theory also focuses on the neurodevelopmental characteristics and progression within the lives of adolescent’s. As mentioned before, Cruise, Fernandez, McCoy, Guy, Colwell, and Douglas, quote Cauffman and Steinberg stating, “‘this growing body of research has brought up both the developmental theoretical framework, and operationalization of that framework, to examine adolescents’ specific developmental capacities deemed crucial to participation in the legal processes’ (Cauffman & Steinberg, 1995),” (Cruise et al., 2008). Meaning that there must be an understanding during the juvenile interrogation and the juvenile justice system, that adolescent’s are cognitively different than adults. The combination of cognitive, social, and emotional factors influence the “maturity of judgment” through age-related factors that differentiate an adolescent’s decision-making from that of an
(Kindersley, 2012, p.266). Through the learning process, children change their schemata by adapting, due to assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation adds new information to the existing schemata while adaptation modifies new information into the schemata. Ideally, there is balance between assimilation and accommodation to ensure equilibrium (Shaffer,
Social learning theory states that an individual will model behaviors that one has been exposed to as a child (Chibucos, Leite, & Weis, 2005). As a child, it is through observation and imitating other people that we learn our behaviors and what is acceptable or normal behaviors. Violence is said to be a learned behavior which can be learned directly or indirectly through family members, friends, partners, etc. These learned behaviors are reinforced in childhood and can continue into adulthood through a term called operant conditioning. Bandura (1973) mentions that these behaviors that continue into adulthood typically act as a coping response to stress or as a method of conflict resolution.
These theories provided inspiration and knowledge for future theorists’ like Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, who have become notable theorists in the area of cognitive development. Both of their theories have influenced educational pedagogy, and the fundamental premises of these theories can be observed in classrooms around the world. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Piaget’s theory of cognitive development proposes stages of biological maturation as the basis for how children experience and interact with their environment and that children must progress through each stage before moving to the next. The stages in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development are the following: sensorimotor (0-2 years), pre-operational (2-7 years), concrete operational (7-11 years), and formal operational (11- adulthood). Within his theory, he uses the term “schemas” to describe the mental models for the different aspects of the
However, such behaviour becomes part of an individual’s behavioural repertoire through direct reinforcement – when a behaviour is imitated, it receives direct reinforcement (or not). In contrast, the psychodynamic approach requires a combination of both the nature and nurture. According to Freud, both childhood experiences as well as innate drives constitute the personality of an adult. The basis of this is dependent on developmental stages which a
It can be noted that our adulthood can often be described as an extension of our childhood hence what we experience as infants and children can shape how we react , process and solve situations in the future (Engler 2008). Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development is highly important for social care practitioners as this knowledge will enable us to gain an insight into what makes our client’s tick while also allowing us to understand , at a deeper level , what internal issues and conflicts may be happening under the surface(Greene 2011)
Influences of Cognitive Development Piaget’s major achievement is his understanding of cognitive development. According to the book by Duchesne and McMaugh (2016), Piaget states how some influences of development can be biological. It further explains how important it is for children to experience firsthand the world around them. As this will strengthen the neurological pathways
The study of psychology evaluates the inner being of an individual. Psychology begins in the early stages of life and is associated with one’s upbringing. Depending on the relationship with parents, to behavior in a social environment, these aspects contribute to help mold a person’s way of thinking. The mental characteristics that are observed has been used overtime to classify individuals as to whether there can be some type of disorder found. The evolution of psychology has created jobs in a variety of different fields such as hospitals, schools, and prisons.
Theory of mind is probably one of the most significant developments in early childhood social cognition. “Theory of mind” refers to our understanding of individuals, each with his or her mental states – such as feelings, motives, wants, and thoughts. They use the theory of mind to explain our behavior towards others, by telling them what we think and want. Also, how we interpret other people’s talk and behavior by being conscious of their thoughts and wants. This study is essential to human development because it helps us understand how children think when it comes to other.