Cognitive development is “the growth of cognitive abilities and capacities from birth to old age” (Colman, 2008). In this essay I will address Piagetian Theory, the cognitive performance of children from age seven to eleven, (the concrete operational period), and Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory of cognitive development. This essay will begin by analysing Piagetian Theory. Cognitive development cannot
Piaget’s cognitive development theory analyses the growth of children’s development for thinking and their understanding. In fact, American Psychological Association (2015) defines cognitive development as the ‘The development of processes of knowing, including imagining, perceiving, reasoning, and problem solving’. This essay analyses Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. Jean Piaget was a psychologist who was acknowledged for his significant contribution of research in child development (Woolfolk & Margetts 2016, p. 80). Throughout this essay, Jean Piaget’s key concepts will be analyzed and linked to the development and learning of children.
Jean Piaget, unlike most people at the time, did not believe that children’s brains were just small version of adults’ brains, but that they develop with age. As he studied children, he began to theorize that development occurs not only sequentially, but in a cumulative fashion. 6-year-olds are capable of refined motor control that toddlers are not, but they’re incapable of logical and abstract thinking utilized by adults on a daily basis. Because of this, Piaget ascertained that children develop schemas, or frameworks for organizing and interpreting information, and modify them throughout their lives. While this theory explains why development is cumulative and becomes more complex with experience, development does not always fit into such a structured path.
There is a misconception that children are like miniature versions of adults and that they think in the same way adults do. This misconception was debunked by a developmental biologist named Piaget who theorized that children reason quite differently. Piaget formulated a theory of cognitive development that explains how children create a mental model of the world. He did not support the idea that intellect is a fixed feature. Rather, he believed that cognitive development is more like a process which occurs due to biological maturation and interaction with the environment.
Theoretical Perspectives The way in which settings plan and support children’s development in play is influenced by a range of theoretical perspectives. Cognitive Theory In 1936 Piaget developed the theory of cognitive development and suggested that children move through four different stages of mental development. The theory emphases how children acquire knowledge and focuses on understanding the nature of intelligence in children. Piaget believed that children take an active role in their learning process and develop through making their own experiments, observations, and learning about the world. (https://www.verywell.com/piagets-stages-of-cognitive-development-2795457) Piaget's four stages of intellectual (or cognitive) development
He created the cognitive development theory, which he divided into four discontinuous stages: the sensorimotor stage, preoperational stage, the concrete operational stage and the formal stage. The sensorimotor stage, from birth to age two, explains that an infant processes the world around them and learns with their eyes, ears, hands and mouth. This stage is important because motor skills develop from sucking and kicking to chewing and walking. Infants will also master object permanence which will help them in the later stages discover the world around them. The preoperational stage emphasizes the major change in symbolic activity, leading children into make-believe play.
He pointed out that children do not learn only passively, they also learn actively to try and understand things around them. Piaget also pointed out that as children learn and grow up, they develop schemas and those schemas become more elaborate and plentiful. His theory was that children at different ages can do different things and that they think differently. When he thought this, he out the ages into four separate stages. Piaget’s four stages of development included sensorimotor, from birth to age two, pre-operational stage, from age two to age seven, concrete operational stage, from age seven to age eleven, and the formal operational stage, from age eleven to adolescence and adulthood.
The four stages: Piaget’s theory of cognitive development advances from an understanding that there are a series of stages which children are specific to. The four stages are: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational, the four stages are divided up into age brackets that are birth to two-year-old, two to seven years old, seven to eleven years old and twelve and up. Each stage has a set of skills that children will acquire as they progress in age and cognitive ability and development As a future early primary teacher, I focused primarily on sensorimotor and preoperational as early education ranges from birth until six, meaning that the age bracket branches over two stages. The sensorimotor is from birth until two years old and is based on children learning, growing and developing based on understanding an influence from the world around them, this time is considered a time of tremendous grow and change. Children in this stage are developing motor functions and cognitive perceptions as well as becoming aware of certain schemas, such as an object existing in more than one place, which could include children taking a toy from day care or kindy home.
With assimilation and accommodation in mind, Piaget believed that there had to be a balance between both and it was known as equilibration (Wells, 2014). At the core of Piaget’s theory, it is said that Cognitive development occurs in four stages in the same order. Each stage has
The process of human development is shaped by the interaction between the individual and the environment. An environmental effect is like their parents, friends, school, work, culture, and so on. His theory states that there are many different types of environmental influences that can affect a child 's development, from the people and institutions around these individuals to the power of culture in the country. Plus, he stated that the effect of the time because of certain events and cultural change over time. "Children are like wet cement.