Piaget and Vygotsky, two of the major advocates for Constructvist theory, both explored factors that could help figure out how children understand learning at different stages in their lives. These theories give insight to the differences, yet also the links in learning, particularly in relation to how children gain their learning, and how their behavior may be affected. The learning theories presented; Behaviorism and Constructivism originated from two deep thinking schools of thought, which has lead to influence educators’ view in learning and teaching. Two of the major advocates of behaviorism were Skinner and Watson. They explored how children’s learning could be affected by changes in the environment that they learn in, and attempted to prove that children’s
Thomas (2005) wrote that early in Piaget’s career he worked with children and his observations and interactions with the students led him to the theory that a young person 's cognitive processes are inherently different from those of adults (pp. 188-9). According to Ahmad, Ch, Batool, Sittar, and Malik (2016), Piaget showed that when compared to adults, young children think in differently and he then came to the conclusion that cognitive development was an ongoing process which occurred due to maturation and interaction with the environment (p. 72). Piaget theorized that each child was born with a basic mental structure that would serve as the foundation upon which all future learning and knowledge would be constructed. He developed his Cognitive Development Theory to explain the process by which the infant would eventually develop into an individual
Some of the important process and variables that Bandura use to understand personality is the Observational Learning that he believe that this is a key aspect of how we learn. Through this process we form ideas about the behavior of others and then possibly adopt this behavior ourselves. Also on a Personal Control social cognitive theorists emphasize that we can regulate and control our own behavior, despite our changing environment (Bandura, 2006: Mischel
Sociocultural theory argues that learning is a social process and the beginning of human intelligence in society and culture. The theme of the theory is that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition. Vygotsky believed everything is learned on two levels, first on a social level and later the child (Vygotsky 1978) .Social interaction plays a big role in the development of a child’s cognition functions and the key to understanding it is the “ZPD” zone of proximal development. The ZPD includes all the knowledge and skills that a child cannot yet understand or perform on their own but is capable of learning with help and guidance from an adult. As children grow their skills their knowledge grows by observing someone
During these peer interactions, the teacher can see how the children organise their learning and how they deal with challenges. Play also presents a number of opportunities for learning, whereby engaging with the pupils in their interaction the educator would pick up ways of how to extend their play and assess their learning in a more formative and indirect manner. Moreover, we also found that it is more effective to see the children in their naturalistic setting without being obtrusive, hence informal observations are key as not to disturb the children’s ordinary routine. Observing the children’s guardians could also be a window towards finding out what motivates the children to learn, Maccoby
Vygotsky had three basic assumptions of cognitive development. Firstly, he believed that thinking is influenced by one’s culture. Secondly, he said that social interaction is the primary cause of cognitive development. “Human learning presupposes a specific social nature and a process by which children grow into the intellectual life of those around them” (Vygotsky, Mind in Society, 1978, p.88). He proposed that the most important things a society passes on to members are psychological/ mental tools.
Developmental milestone delays are contributed by several factors such as the cultural environment, mental disorders such as Downs Syndrome, blindness and muscular diseases such as muscular dystrophy (Boyse, 2010; Santock, 2011). Conclusion It can then be seen that understanding the way children develop is a significant aspect in Child and Youth Development. The different categories of child development help better the approaches that CYC workers use towards children. Likewise, it is very crucial that the educational sector embraces these approaches and integrates them within their curricula. To sum up, to enable CYC workers to use effective interventions on children, it is immensely important that they have an understating of child development in all its
John Dewey’s principle. John Dewey’s principle of teaching states that the core of the educational process is the youngster. He too considered that students learn best when they have to work out problems that are meaningful to them. He got the idea of a mentally active, hands-on learning. He also believed that kids learn effectively through personal conflicts in which they must inspect, gather thoughts, procedure data and put thoughts into practical usage.
While collaborating with others through interactions, children learn the traditions, values, beliefs, and language of their culture. For this reason, families and educators ought to supplement children with plenty of social interaction. Vygotsky believed language is an imperative device for thought and assumes a key part in cognitive development. He introduced the
Cognitive Development of the child is greatly influenced by the person that he/she spends time with. Vygotsky (1978) stated that “much important learning by the child occurs through social interaction with a skillful tutor”. The tutor, who is often an adult, such as a parent, teacher or nanny, may represent behaviors and/or give verbal instructions for the child. This is referred to as “cooperative” or “collaborative dialogue” by Vygotsky. The child aims to understand the actions or orders given by the tutor then adopts the information, and then they would use it as a guide for performance.