Language contact result from migration. It can also be brought about by an interaction between ad stratum languages. An intrusive language generally acts as either a super stratum or a substratum. It occurs in a variety of phenomena, including language convergence, borrowing and relexification. Pidgins, mixed languages, creoles, and code-switching are some of the most common products of language contact.
As the writter suggests, “emotions are central to human life and bilingualism provides a new perspective on emotions”. Thus, by speaking many foreign languages we are adopting a new perspective that permits us to experiment new ways of experiencing and perceiving emotions differently. It is proven that a change of language “brings with it a change of role” . So, by knowing and speaking different languages the speaker perspective changes, thereby, the speakers discovers that that the meaning of a word in other language than his mother tongue is different, because his perspective is different. Also, he discovers new opportunities or has the chance of experiencing different personalities, of living different lives.
In more modern times Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is faced with debate and controversy on the accord that the dialect portrayed in the book and the story itself has racist intent, which is further uncovered by media and public outcries. This was not a problem in the past, however, as such speech was not weighed as heavily. The main reason for modern criticism of the book comes from racial views. An example of this can be found in Telling the Truth in a Tight Place,"Campaigns were afoot to have Huckleberry Finn banned from classroom use; the book was being denounced on national television as "racist trash"; and the continuing focus on Mark Twain's alleged "degradation" of American Americans-epitomized, of course, by the treatment of Jim in the Phelps Farm section, proved that the critical issues were not to be so easily resolved. "(Macleod, Christine) This means that as Mark Twain’s book received commercial attention, society became discontent with the book and wanted to have it removed from schools.
3.2. Contrastive analysis hypothesis The habit formation theory as we saw in section 3.1 had a big influence on a pedagogic area. It was thought that L2 learner would have a trouble in acquiring linguistic items that have different features from their L1 and could acquire relatively easily linguistic items that have similar features to their L1 to the contrary. Then, on the basis of those thought, a new theory on a L2 acquisition and teaching theory appeared. The theory is called “contrastive analysis hypothesis (CAH)”.
In this study, we will describe major differences between British and American English pronunciation in terms of change of vowels and consonants. Although the change of stress is not being as marked, it also contributes to differentiate both accents. We will mention three areas where important differences are found, namely, the French loanwords, the suffixes –ary, -ory, -berry, and the ending –ate. We can summarize the main differences between American English and British English as follows: 1) The presence of rhotic accent. 2) Differences in vowel pronunciation.
Trinidad the British colony did not have the same political history as did Barbados and Jamaica (Older British colonies). In order to preserve the British political order, and its control over the island, in 1832, Trinidad was governed by what is now called: ‘’Crown Colony Government’’. However, due to many movements (Labor riots, trade union movement, the people’s national movement), the decolonization began which led to national independence in 1962. The British planters continued what the French ones started, leading to the expansion of the sugar industry with the aid of a significant number of slaves which increased by the early 1800s. By the year 1815, African slaves formed 67% of the island’s population.
According to (Solano-Flores, 2006) “Dialect is a variety of a language that is distinguished from other varieties of the same language by its pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, discourse conventions and other linguistics features.” People from the same regional may be more familiar with a particular language which is regarded as the standard language, this may be through their contact with the same individuals and the evolution of language. Languages may be evolved from the root Haugen based on his conclusion of language and dialect being ambiguous defined language as “either a single linguistic norm or as a group of related norms, dialect referring to one of the norms” (Wardhaugh, 2006). He stated that “one man’s dialect is another man’s language” in the sense that what may seem as a dialect to one may be a common language to someone else because they have never known any other form of speaking, thus because they don’t understand it even though it is in the same language one
Manglish is a form of non-standard English that has been heavily-influenced by the national language of Malaysia, Bahasa Melayu and other languages like Indian and Chinese. The need for acquiring English language vary from the second language for the Malays and the third language for the Chinese and Indians, with Bahasa Malaysia as the official language. Hence, Manglish was naturally developed to be the lingua-franca that is used in informal settings in this multiracial society. For example, a Malay speaker would speak Manglish with certain words and phrases that are understandable by the Chinese and Indians. In addition, Manglish is the simpler version of Malaysian or Global Standard English.
There is a relationship between attitudes and learners’ difficulties in learning a language (Rifai, 2009). She argues that if the attitudes of learners increase, the more various ways the language learners make to try to overcome the various difficulties they face. Thus, attitude is important to change the paradigm toward a language brings good or bad
However, studies on the pragmatics of second languages indicate that learners ' realization of this dimension of the language tends to vary from each other. Sometimes languages share some certain views of pragmatic aspects, but at other times pragmatic strategies or routines are controversial among them, especially when the underlying values of the first language are intrinsically perceived to be conflicting with values applying to the second language use (Hinkel, 1996; Ishihara, 2006; LoCastro, 2001; Norton Peirce, 1995; Norton, 2000; Siegal, 1996). 1.1. Statement of the problem In the course of the