His ideas were adopted later by Hutchinson and Waters (1987), who advocate a learning-centered approach in which learners’ learning needs play a vital role. If the analyst, by means of target situation analysis, tries to find out what learners do with language (Hutchinson and Waters, 1987)learning needs analysis will tell us "what the learner needs to do in order to learn" (ibid: 54). Obviously, they advocate a process-oriented approach, not a product- or goal-oriented one. For them ESP is not "a product but an approach to language teaching which is directed by specific and apparent reasons for learning"
2.4. Support for the Monolingual Approach There are some solid supports for the Monolingual Approach to teaching in the literature and advocates usually provide their supports around 3 claims: First, the learning of an L2 ought to display the learning of an L1. Second, fruitful learning includes the separation and distinction of L1 and L2. Third, students ought to be demonstrated the significance of the L2 through its constant use (Cook, 2001, p412). As indicated by Cook 2001, (who is not a Monolingual Approach advocate) these are some of the basic principles of the Monolingual Approach.
INTRODUCTION The sorting of language skills into four categories -- listening, speaking, reading and writing -- is compellingly logical. But as Paul Davies and Anne Fraenke point out, “Living languages do not have a permanently fixed and perfectly defined set of forms and rules…. The term ‘living language’ itself suggests that they are more like complex organisms, wonderfully functional and stable, but also variable and evolving. English is no exception,” (Ur pp. 117-128) It is my thesis that language teachers should resist viewing these four categories as separate entities among which they abruptly shift gears.
Ellis (2009) stated that “Implicit knowledge is only evident in learners’ verbal behavior, but explicit knowledge is verbalizable” (p.13). Explicit knowledge can be declared and verbalized, and implicit knowledge establishes some boundaries on learners’ abilities to learn L2 language. In this regard explicit knowledge can be learned, and age does not limit learners’ ability, therefore learners apply both implicit and explicit knowledge through learning process, and as Ellis (2009) mentioned “both explicit and implicit knowledge are psychologically and neurologically distinct.” (p.15). 2.3.4. Implicit and Explicit Instruction Based on Ellis (2009) declaration “Instruction implies an attempt to intervene in interlanguage development, in addition indirect intervention aims to create conditions where learners learn experientially through learning how to communicate in English, and instruction as direct intervention involves the pre-emptive specification of what it is that
The cognitive approach claimed that notion of native-like pronunciation could not be achieved by L2 learners and unusual and unrealistic goal. Additionally, there were a lot of questions about whether the significance of pronunciation in the ESL/EFL pedagogy and whether it can be taught in direct way (Morley, 1991). Hence, the instructions gave less attention and time to pronunciation component and some program omitted it entirely. The common methods of teaching pronunciation was not regarded as pedagogical
The misconception lies in the view that grammar is a collection of arbitrary rules about static structures in the language. Further questionable claims are that the structures do not have to be thought, learners will acquire them on their own, or if the structures are taught, the lessons that ensue will be boring. This thesis on comparative approach tries to make a brief analysis of necessity of grammar teaching before it gives a relatively objective description of its function and significance in language teaching. It argues that, grammar teaching is necessary in language teaching. Keywords: Grammar, English language teaching, Necessity Table of Contents
According to MacIntyre and Doucette report (2010) “willingness to communicate could be perceived as a readiness to speak in the L2 at a particular time with a specific person, and as such, is the final psychological step to the initiation of L2 communication”. Willingness to communicate is the most basic orientation towards the communication. Almost anyone is likely to respond to a direct question, but many would not continue or initiate interaction. McCroskey and Baer (1985) defined willingness to communicate as a stable tendency towards the communication, given the choice. WTC is considered to be of paramount importance to the realm of language teaching, due to its realization as the final intention to the initiation of the communication.
1.0 INTRODUCTION For this to compare and contrast the methods in language learning assignment, we need to compare Suggestopedia method with Gouin and the Series method. Suggestopedia is a modern understanding of how the human brain works and how we learn most effectively while Gouin and the Series method is a method of teaching a foreign language developed by Francois Gouin that taught learners directly (without translation) and conceptually (without grammatical rules). Firstly, we need to compare and contrast the similarities and differences between Suggestopedia and Gouin and the Series method. Both are the methods use in language learning but the way of learning is different. Everything has its own pros and cons so we need to compare and contrast the strength and weaknesses in both Suggestopedia and Gouin and the Series method.
In general, there were two approaches that could be applied to teach grammar: deductive and inductive. This dichotomy was built upon rule-based and example-based teaching. The deductive approach, also known as a 'top down ' approach, was a rule-based teaching style that involved explaining the grammar item to learners before they encountered how rules functioned in language and then applying it; therefore, the deductive approach was one of the explicit teaching styles (Cowan, 2008). This approach was derived from the notion of deductive reasoning where the concept went from the general to the specific. It can also be called rule driven learning.
However, English curriculum prescribes teaching of sound only in lower primary classes. Since phonetics is taught in lower primary classes and not supplemented, pronunciation of words becomes a challenging task for learners of higher classes. As a result progressiveness