Social inequalities can be described as the differences in “income, resources, power and status” (Naidoo and Wills 2008, in Warwick-Booth 2013, 2) that advantage a social class, a group or an individual over another, and thereby establish social hierarchies. It also affects inequalities in regards to gender, race, access to health and education, and general living conditions. In sociology, the dichotomy between the conflict theory approach and the functionalist approach has led to a discordant opinion in regards to social inequalities. The conflict theory seems to admit that social inequalities needs to disappear in order to install a common and equal base for all individuals, whereas the functionalist approach believes that social inequalities
Framing social inequality, he ‘elaborates a theory of class that fuses the Marxian insistence of economic determination with the Weberian recognition of the distinctiveness of the cultural order and the Durkheimian concern for classification’ (Wacquant 2007, 270). By combining different theories, Bourdieu distances himself from the unilateral Marxist theory of classes. Instead of focusing on social inequality and a class based system simply on behalf of economic estate, he ‘argues that classes arise in the conjunction of shared position in social space and shared dispositions actualized in the sphere of consumption’ (ibid, 272). Thus, he draws upon the concepts of habitus, capital and fields when capturing and explaining social
Conflict theories, such as Marxism and feminism focus on power struggles and differences, for example, class conflict, and for the most part question historical ideologies. It is a macro level critique and study of society (Collins, 1971). Many sociologists and thinkers have defined the class in different ways. Marx defined class in terms of the political and economic structures of power, he believed that power came directly from economic and political conditions and the people with power usually exploit the ones without power. He divided society into three classes the bourgeoisie, the petty bourgeoisie and the proletariat (Grant, 2001).
For this reason, sociological studies require theory and multilateral analysis and cannot restrain itself on the mathematical verification. Taste, as a set of “manifested preferences” (Bourdieu, 1984/2010: 49) and “class culture turned into nature” (1984/2010:188) works as a field of antagonistic relations of the dominant class and cultural production, serving as a source of discernment and denial of the social. According to Bourdieu, society can be divided based on the composition of capital (educational - cultural, social and economic) and the social origin of its members, resulting in three main groups: the bourgeois, who owns legitimate taste, petit bourgeois/middle brow taste, and the working class, who reproduces popular
As demonstrated by Marx and Engels in the introduction and development of instruments of labour, the division of labour and private property divide of people into social classes (i.e. the exploiting class and the exploited class). Alienation and contradiction – expressed through class struggles – are oppressive and dehumanizing, yet absolutely necessary for the general progress of the human society (Marx and Engels, 1965). Marx explains social change in endogenous terms, stressing the internal dynamics of the mode of production (Moratiu and Ignat 2011). From the social point of view, processes are qualified as being endogenous when they occur within the social system, conflicts arising due to tensions between socially unequal groups and classes, inequality being powered by economically contradictions, which, ultimately, grow into social contradictions calling for change.
Like stated earlier, education is one of the most important socializing tools of society. School is where children learn to become a part of a group; it is where one is suppose to fin their place in society, “Education is being used to socialize everyone into their values, norms, myths and ideology of the ruling class (SOURCE)”. This socialization in schools does not just effect the black community, it also affected the white community. Just as the black community is being socialized in a way that devalues them as a person, white children were being socialized in a way that upheld their ideas of racial superiority. The curriculum of these schools just reinforced the existing social order of South
Child poverty in Ireland is a consistent problem and is one of the highest rates in Europe (O'Hagan & Newman, 2014). There are two types of poverty Absolute and Relative poverty. Absolute poverty is the deficiency of basic needs throughout a long period of time, which jeopardises an individual’s life and can cause harm to them (Geyndt, 1996). Relative poverty refers to not having the basic living conditions
In terms of analyzing the relationships between slaves and slaveholders in the ancient time or the feudal system of the Medieval, there was always the unequal treatment of people and the exploitation of the work of lower classes. The theories of social inequality offered by Marx and Weber both reflect the idea of social class as a construct of the society. While Marx traces the roots of the issue of the division to the antiquity and the feudal times claiming that the modern capitalism is only a transformation of the previous orders, Weber emphasizes a more complicated construction with relation to the social class. Identifying also the impact of other factors, Weber promotes a more comprehensive understanding of the issue within the modern society. In any case, in spite of the reasons and the foundation of the inequality issue and its foundational meaning in the development of the civilization, it still might be necessary to reduce the impact of class division on the lives of
So the family and parents instill good behaviours and try to make responsible citizens out of their children. So home is basically the first school for the children but formal and proper education starts form the school where they are instructed how to behave and comprehend. Importance of Education “The foundation of every state is the education of its youth”. Diogenes Laertius For every human being it is necessary to acquire knowledge. This makes a person comprehend what’s going around him/her.
Poverty is one of the problems faced by our country. It is the state of not having enough resources necessary for basic needs. The income of each family determines if they are poor and varies from different location. It is best defined by social conditions of lack of access to food, clothing, and shelter (Vale, 2017). According to the National Statistical Coordination Board, the poverty line for 2014 in the Philippines marked 100,534 pesos per year (275.44 pesos per day).