Pigs Literature Review

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Interaction between sex, stocking density and breed on the growth performance and behaviour of growing pigs Chapter 2. Literature Review 2.1 Introduction Pig housing systems are expensive to construct and operate; therefore management strategies that maximize the output can have a marked economic influence (Wolter et al, 2002). Market place in the pork industry demands that pig producers should regularly amend their production practices in order to remain profitable, increase profits or minimize losses. One of the keys to maximize the output of the facility is to determine the appropriate stocking density. Increasing the stocking density is the most common way of increasing the output in commercial operations. However, as the…show more content…
Table 2: Effects of group size and sex on feeding behaviour of growing pigs Trait Group size SEM Sex 2 4 8 12 Barrow Gilts Number of feeder visits per day 20.6ab 22.4a 18.2c 19.4b 0.52 20.7a 19.6b Feed intake per visit, g/pig 98.9ab 86.8c 101.8a 94.6b 2.67 93.7 97.3 Feeder occupation time per visit, min/pig 6.33ab 6.19b 6.71a 5.88b 0.166 6.26 6.30 Feeder occupation time per day, min/pig 123.2a 127.7a 112.1ab 99.0b 2.11 118.3a…show more content…
Some authors have defined welfare as the capacity of animals to behave in a natural manner or on a mental state or feelings of the animals (Rollin, 1993; Duncan, 1993; Zaragoza, 2013 and Fraser et al., 1997). There are many welfare issues that exist in the pig industry which have certain implications on growth and production of pigs. Measures of pig welfare rely on showing some evidence of change e.g. changes that occur due to alteration in hormone secretion have been utilized as an indicator of welfare, occurrence of abnormal behaviour and also deprivation of good health (Cronin et al., 1995). Factors such as injuries, fighting, bruises, hormone secretion and mortalities are key measures that are used to determine pig welfare (Cronin et al., 1995; Rozeboom et al., 2014). Furthermore, it also appears that there are a human – animal interactions that have been discussed as a welfare issue such as high levels of fear imposed by humans to animals. Extensive research has demonstrated that these interactions may also have consequential effect on productivity and welfare of pigs (Gonyou et al., 1986; Harmsworth and Barnett

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