The Likert Scale scores items using 5 ratings (1 = very uncharacteristic to 5 = very characteristic). The RCBS is used globally as it is found to have strong internal consistency (α = .86) and test-retest reliability (r = .88) (Hopko, Stowell, Jones, Armento, & Cheek, 2005). The scale we developed is a 12 item shyness scale. It contains three subscales: (social, stranger and assertiveness difficulty). Participants were informed that the scale was created in order to examine what attitudes people hold and what emotions they experience.
Measurement: Measurement is measuring something’s length, width and quantity. Measurement is done to know information about different things and on different issues. There are four types of measurement scales which are nominal or classificatory scale, ordinal scale, interval scale and ratio scale. Nominal scale: The nominal scale is one in which are divide things or individuals on the basis of their same characteristics. This scale is not quantitative, it does not contain numbers in fact it represents different groups and categories of same features.
The scale has shown substantial reliability tested by internal consistency as well as good test-retest reliability. The inventory contains 15 item at 4-point rating scale that combine measures of feelings of fear/anxiety and feelings of depression/anger (Mitchell & Hastings, 1998). SELF -EFFICACY The scores of self efficacy related to challenging behaviour can be operationalized by Difficult Behaviour Self-Efficacy Scale (Hasting, R. P., & Brown, 2002) which include scale of five items. These five items include direct questions about feelings of confidence, personal difficulties, possible positive effect, satisfaction and control of when dealing with challenging behaviour. Furthermore, the rating scale factor structure, reliability and validity
Interval scales not only categorize the objects or responses in order but also depict the exact value between equal gaps. This scale of measurement has a beginning and ending point and has been divided into equally spaced intervals or units. There can be variation in starting and ending points and intervals between them can be different at different scales. The interval differences are meaningful but we can’t defend ratio relationships. These intervals are the units which can be measured exactly, and is accepted as standard units of measurement that can be infinitely divided.
I think quantitative research transforms the data to formulate facts in the research. There are many methods used to collect the data like surveys and systematic observations. For example, for my studying of employee attitudes towards job satisfaction in Oman Medical Specialty Board, I will distribute online surveys for the staff to measure their satisfaction on the
Before the actual survey, a pilot test was conducted. The purpose of the pilot test is to test the validity and reliability, and also capture the potential errors of the questionnaires (Lancaster, Dodd and Williamson, 2004). The potential errors of questionnaire are using misleading or biases question, ambigious word, question out of scope and others. Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2009) recommend that the minimum set of questionnaires required for pilot test are ten set. Hence, 15 qualified respondents were selected to carry out the pilot test in order to detect the potential errors of questionnaire.
In addition to this, surveys are the effective modes for analysing the data because it helps in collecting limited and specific information from the selected participants through contributes in obtaining reliable conclusions. Therefore, in this study, the focus is on the use of survey as the research strategy in order to gather the information from the selected participants. The researcher uses online survey in which a questionnaire of close-ended questions is given to the participants (Khan,
Likert scale measurement Introduction Likert scaling is a multiple-item method for surveying a specific attitudes or experiences of the population. The scale consists of 5 statements indicating the agreement or disagreement towards the object (statement) of the analysis (Fabrigar, Wood 2007, p. 537). The scale from 1 to 5 indicates the degree to which the respondent disagrees or agrees with the statement, 1 being the weakest and 5 being the strongest. After the questionnaire is conducted, the results are being summed and the composite score is calculated. The score shows the valence and extremity of the respondents’ attitudes.