The goal of the experiment is to synthesize a bromohexane compound from 1-hexene and HBr(aq) under reflux conditions and use the silver nitrate and sodium iodide tests to determine if the product is a primary or secondary hydrocarbon. The heterogeneous reaction mixture contains 1-hexene, 48% HBr(aq), and tetrabutylammonium bromide and was heated to under reflux conditions. Heating under reflux means that the reaction mixture is heated at its boiling point so that the reaction can proceed at a faster rate. The attached reflux condenser allows volatile substances to return to the reaction flask so that no material is lost. Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst.
Kean began this new section of the book by diving into describing the antiseptic properties of oligodynamic (self-sterilizing) elements in chapter 10. The atoms in an oligodynamic element absorb most of the bacteria, making the metal more sterile. One of the most prominent oligodynamic elements is silver. The author was able to explain the antibacterial properties of this element through telling historical tales and stories. For example, Kean spoke of how astronomer Tycho Brahe lost part of his nose and got a replacement silver one to curtail infections.
In this experiment, method 1 generate a mixture of yellowish crystals and a yellowish gluey product. Using method 2, the product appear as white crystals. Given that the yellow color remain throughout the product in method 2, too much aldehyde was added. It was predicted that this was the source of error because aldehyde was a yellow liquid. In this experiment, 293 mg of aldehyde was weighted for method 1 instead of 250 mg and.
It was able to support itself as a thin sheet, but easily fragmented when a small force was applied. 3mL of 2M Sodium Hydroxide and 1mL of water, effectively 4mL of 1.5M Sodium Hydroxide, was added to a small amount of Indigo, forming a paste. Sodium Hydrosulphite the acted as a reducing agent, converting Indigo into Leucoindigo, an acidic phenolic compound that reacts with hydroxide ions provided by Sodium Hydroxide to form a water-soluble salt. The solution turns colourless, and the dying process can begin. A 60°C water bath was chosen as Sodium Hydrosulphite will decompose into Sodium Sulfate and Sulfur Dioxide in presence of air at 90°C.
Introduction The modern day camera has evolved with the ever-changing technology of the twenty-first century. The intricacies of what is the modern day camera originate in the late 16th century from simple observations of how light travels. The light can be explained through physics, specifically optics. By relating how cameras function, the incorporation of lenses in cameras, and the relative performance of the human eye in comparison to cameras, the significance and complexities of the technology in cameras can be fully appreciated. The History of Cameras The first known camera, published in Gemma Frisius ' 1545 book De Radio Astronomica et Geometrica, is known as the “camera obscura”.
An excellent example is an Egyptian blue sample from the tomb of Imhotep at the site of Sheikh Said (the 6th Dynasty). The glass phase is selectively decomposed and replaced by basic copper chloride, this phenomenon called ״Copper Chloride Cancer״. Egyptian monuments are known to contain considerable amounts of sodium chloride, when dissolved, it will also react with Cu (I) chloride in solution or copper oxide in the pigment to form paratacamite. Evaporation of water at the outer surface of the walls will lead to high concentration of sodium chloride (NaC1) in the residual liquid thus causing the precipitation of paratacamite on the outer surface of the pigment. This disease develops in stages; it starts with the diversification of the glass phase, followed by decomposition of the residual material.
Talbot, through his experimentation, discovered a method to semi-permanently fix images. By using a salt solution, Talbot managed to somewhat stop his photograph from continuing to expose. On the other hand, if the photograph continued the exposure process, the image would darken and fade beyond recognition. John Herschel, a close friend of Talbot, would be inspired by his work to produce a permanent fix. Hyposulfite of soda would stop the reaction of silver and permanently fix images.
This helped prove his theory of the proton’s existence because when the alpha radiation occurred it turned the old element into a new element by removing two protons. Lastly the article also mentions that, “In 1898, Ernest Rutherford began studying the radiation emitted by uranium. His experiments led him to conclude that radioactivity must have at least two components; and he named them alpha and beta rays after the first two letters of the Greek alphabet.” The research he conducted lead him to realized that beta rays were way more penetrating than alpha
Wash ether layer with saturated sodium chloride solution and retain ether layer. In a small 125ml Erlenmeyer flask, dry the ether solution over anhydrous calcium chloride. Add sufficient calcium chloride so that it no longer clumps to pellets added earlier on the bottom of the flask. Remove the solvent using a rotary evaporator and weigh product. Results 1 mole of benzoic acid (C6H5COOH = 122.12grams) reacts with 1 mole of methanol (CH3OH = 32grams/mole) to produce 1 mole of methyl benzoate (C6H5COOCH3 = 136.15grams) and 1 mole of water.
For the early days of film in the 1800’s a lot of interesting things happened. It was about developing the tools to capture your art. This art also went through, and still is, going through development. Reading up about the history and development of the Kinetoscope interested me. In 1891, Thomas Edison and William Kennedy Laurie Dickson made a single-viewer peep-show device in which film moved past light called Kinetoscope.