Water is one of the most efficient quenching media where maximum hardness is required, but it is liable to cause distortion and cracking of the work piece. Where hardness can be sacrificed, whale, cotton seed and mineral oils are used. These tend to oxidize and form sludge with consequent lowering of efficiency. The quenching velocity of oil is much less than water. To minimize distortion, long cylindrical objects should be quenched vertically, flat sections edgeways and thick sections should enter the bath first.
(Engineers say "Stress is proportional to strain".) In symbols, F = kx, where F is the force, x is the stretch, and k is a constant of proportionality. If Hooke's Law is correct, then, the graph of force versus stretch will be a straight line. Tensile testing experiment Purpose of the experiment: Tensile testing is one of the most fundamental tests for engineering,and provides valuable information about a material and its associated properties. These properties can be used for design and analysis of engineering structures, and for developing new materials that better suit a specified use.The basic idea of a tensile test is to place a sample of a material between two fixtures called "grips" which clamp the material.
In recent years, various method such as nanofiltration [15, 16], capacitive deionization , electrodialysis , electrochemical treatment  and, adsorption [20, 21] have been widely studied for ions removal from aqueous solution, especially water softening. Several adsorbent are qualified for this purpose. Activated carbon is the most popular adsorbent which used for water softening but it cost remains its main drawback . A large number of low-cost adsorbents have been utilized for ions removal . Recently, natural clay minerals (e.g.
Once the true stress-strain curves were developed from the data extrapolated by the tensile tester, mechanical properties of each metal were compared. 316 Stainless Steel yielded the highest toughness, tensile strength, and percent elongation. For application purposes, environments that entail high impact load, like jet engine components or heat exchangers, are suggested for 316 Stainless Steel. Additionally, as a result of the corrosion resistant properties, 316 Stainless Steel is suggested in environments that entail chemical usage like textile processing equipment and marine atmospheres. A36 steel obtained the lowest yield strength and tensile strength.
The question still remains whether Underbalance really is the best choice or otherwise just another method with flaws and disadvantages. Therefore, the Underbalanced upside can be seen through three main aspects which are the avoidance of formation damage, the increase in productivity and the amount of cost saved while performing this method. The main and most important reason why Underbalanced Drilling was needed is to prevent and minimize the reservoir damage. Reservoir damage in this context means the damage done through the invasion of drilling fluid into the reservoir rock. This happens due to the high pressure of overbalanced drilling in the wellbore as it forces the drilling fluid into the pores of reservoir rocks that are being drilled.
Silicon carbide contamination is always a problem therefore the wheels are "dressed" in other areas far from the preforming departments. 9. Sintering: a) Hydrogen Sintering: A hydrogen atmosphere protects the material from oxidation and reduces some oxides. The hydrogen flow is always in a direction opposite the direction of the material being sintered so as to "sweep" the impurities away. Graphite boats are required and temperatures of between 2500° F and 2750° F are used.
 studied about Faradaic reaction in CDI process which they found that there was a possibility of pH fluctuations and H2O2 generation in sample solution. pH fluctuations are considered as important issue since it could affect the water quality and might lead to carbonate scaling which could harm the pipes or the system itself. The severity of issue is increasing related to operating potential in CDI system. A decrease of pH was recorded when the 1.2 V and 1.5 V (High potential) were charged in the system, implying that porous carbon oxidation may have occurred. The reaction of Carbon electrode oxidation can be viewed in Equation 3.
It consists of sample injection port, carrier gas cylinder with pressure regulator, column oven, column (open tubular column and packed column), detector and data system. 1. Sample injection port A sample injection port is used to introduce the sample at the head of column. For optimum column efficiency, the sample should not be too large, and should be introduced into the column in vapour form. The slow injection of large samples may results in loss of resolution and band broadening.
4) Sintering has three stages namely, slow heating during burn off, a constant temperature period, and cooling after sintering. The non-uniform and non- steady heating and cooling can results into formation of non- equilibrium structures and composites. 5) The porosity in the die pressed mechanical induces structural heterogeneity hence the properties like ultimate tensile strength, and elongation are inferior to wrought materials. 6) Some thermal difficulties are experienced with low melting point metals such as Sn, Pb, Zn and Cd. During sintering the atmosphere in the furnace should be controlled to avoid the formation of oxides as oxide will have adverse effects on the sintering process and results in inferior quality