1. Background Caspofungin is an echinocandin antifungal agent licensed as a first-line therapy for invasive candidiasis in patients with moderate to severe illness or recent exposure to azoles . Caspofungin acts by inhibiting the synthesis of (1,3)-β-D-glucan of the fungal cell wall, ultimately causing cell death . The recommended dosage regimen of caspofungin is a loading dose of 70 mg followed by 50 mg daily (70/50 mg), administered intravenously over 1 h. Caspofungin is highly protein bound (~ 96%) and metabolizes slowly in the liver [3-5]. Its liver uptake is a biphasic process and its binding to the surface of hepatocytes is fast and reversible.
The IUPAC nomenclature for haloperidol is 4-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl]-1-(4-fluorophenyl)butan-1-one. Figure 1: 2-D structure of haloperidol (taken from https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/3559) Tacke et al (2008) analysed haloperidol in order to determine the physicochemical properties of the drug. At a pH of 7.4, it was discovered that haloperidol has a distribution coefficient (Log D) of
In plasma and tissue, ACE catalyses the conversion of angiotensin I to the angiotensin II (active vasoconstrictor), as well as the breakdown of the bradykinin (vasodilator). Therefore ramiprilat reduces angiotensin II formations and inhibits bradykinin breakdown. This results in vasodilation. Since angiotensin II also stimulates the release of aldosterone, ramiprilat causes a reduction in aldosterone secretion. The reduction in aldosterone secretion causes an increase in urinary output.
At the systemic level, ANP enhances sodium and water excretion to decrease blood volume. In the kidneys specifically, ANP increases glomerular filtration rate by dilating the afferent arterioles, and it directly decreases sodium reabsorption I the collecting duct (Silverthorn et al., 2013).
MEVACOR ( also called as LOVASTATIN ) : Mevacor ( Lovastatin ) is a statin drug, used for lowering cholesterol in people who are suffering with hypercholesterolemia to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Lovastatin is a naturally occurring compound found in low concentrations in food such as oyster mushrooms, red yeast rice and Pu-erh. History # : Compactin and Mevacor, natural products with a powerful inhibitory effect on HMG-CoA reductase, were discovered in the 1970s, and taken into clinical development as potential drugs for lowering LDL cholesterol. # : In 1982, some small-scale clinical investigations of lovastatin, a polyketide-derived natural product isolated from “Aspergillus terreus”, in very high-risk patients were undertaken,
Conclusion: We concluded from our study that we may abort the needs for tamsulosin 0.2 mg post SWL in the renal pelvic stones ≤ 1cm but in stones sized 1- 2 cm tamsolusin 0.2 mg may significally increase the stone free rate within two weeks (P =0.049) but after 4th week tamsulosin had no superior results to placebo ,it also can significantly decrease lower urinary tract symptoms (P =0.001) ,decline the need for large dose of analgesia(P =0.027) ,decreased the occurrence of steinstrasse and facilitate its spontaneous passage
The other group is the cysteinyl leukotrienes (LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4). LTC4 is a conjugate of LTA4 plus glutathione, a tripeptide which combines with LTA4 via its cysteine residue. LTC4 is converted to an active metabolite (LTD4) by the removal of the terminal amino acid in the peptide side-chain. Removal of a second amino acid results in a less active metabolite (LTE4). LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4, the ‘sulphidopeptide leukotrienes’ or ‘cysteinyl leukotrienes’, collectively account for the activity that used to be referred to as ‘slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis’ (SRS-A).
The mechanism of action of ETD, like that of other NSAIDs is not completely understood, but may be related to prostaglandin syntheses inhibition. ETD is a member of the pyranocarboxylic acid group of non steroidal NSAIDs. Each tablet and capsule contains 400 mg or 500 mg of ETD for oral administration. ETD is a racemic mixture of [+] S and [-] R-enantiomers. ETD is a white crystalline compound.
To add, Tramadol can stop or slow breathing when starting using this drug or changing its dose. Dependence can occur even within the normal doses of tramadol. There are numerous drug interactions with tramadol, for example, CNS depressant effect of alcohol are enhanced when used with tramadol. Furthermore, serotonin syndrome can result from the use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors with tramadol as they increase the serotonergic effect of tramadol. Moreover, it is contraindicated in people who have experienced hypersensitivity to tramadol, or opioid analgesics and during monoamine oxidase inhibitor
It can also happen to due kidney diseases. They are three kinds of Metabolic alkalosis, 1) Hypocloermic alkalosis is caused by an extreme lack or loss of chloride, from prolonged vomiting. 2) Hypokelemic alkalosis, which is caused by the kidneys response to an extreme loss or lack of potassium. This can happen from taking diuretics. 3) Compensated alkalosis, which occurs when the body returns the acid-base balance but the carbon dioxide and bicarbonate levels, remain abnormal.
Currently there are three medications, Teriflunomide, Fingolimod and Dimethyl Fumarate. While these medications offer the convenience of a pill they have considerable and potentially dangerous side effects. Teriflunomide (Aubagio) works by blocking the enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, which inhibit rapidly dividing cells like those of the immune system. Serious side effects include inability to fight infection, breathing problems and high blood pressure. Other side effects include: headache; diarrhea; nausea; hair thinning or loss; and abnormal liver test results.
In Depression (major depression disorders) state that the side effects that you get from taking SSRIs may possibly include: nausea, nervousness, agitation or restlessness dizziness, drowsiness, insomnia, weight gain or loss, headache, dry mouth, vomiting, and diarrhea. (Staff) Another main type of antidepressants is Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs) which are to ease depression by affecting chemical messengers used to communicate between brain cells. Like most antidepressants, MAOIs work by changing the levels of brain chemicals. An enzyme called monoamine oxidase is involved in removing the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine from the brain. MAOIs are sometimes used to treat conditions other than depression, such as Parkinson 's disease.