AAS- Medical Office Procedures Week 2 Discussion Judy Potts Explain why pharmaceutical representatives leave samples of expensive medications with physicians. Pharmaceutical representatives, show the physicians the newest drugs on the market, to drum up business for the pharmaceutical companies. The representatives leave samples of the products, In hopes that the doctor will strat prescribing their new name brand products for his patients instead of generic drugs. Also, in some cases, the patients are not financially able to purchase a new drug not knowing if it will help with their disease. The clinic 's management staff will determine whether they will be except the newest medication samples from the representative.
The job of the “Commission was to identify the basic ethical principles that should underlie the conduct of biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects and to develop guidelines which should be followed to assure that such research is conducted in accordance with those principles.” (The National Commission for the Protection of Human
Deb Kanya Initial Post Polit & Beck, (2012) describe Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) as an integration of clinical expertise, patient values, and the best research evidence. One of the more challenging aspects of EBP is the actual research on a particular topic. The fact is there is a multitude of journals and reviews etc. on any given subject; for this reason it is imperative that one knows how to conduct a proper search for pertinent information. Due to the complexity of literature searches and the amount of information available it is prudent to follow a guide while doing research.
The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment: compliance with the American Psychological Association’s ethical principles for research with the human participants. Roman Yakubov Hudson County Community College Research that involves human participants raises a lot of ethical questions and concerns. Ethics refers to the norms or principles that generally guide any research as well as whether research activities are conducted the right or the wrong way. Additionally, ethics are the moral principles that govern the behavioral component when a certain activity is conducted, in this case the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment (citation?).
Fear can cause some patients to feel “ treated as mere "experimental model(s)" for the studies, while others refuse to take part because of historical evidences of clinical trial fraud and misconducts known to them” (Nijhawan 134). Preconceived patient perceptions lead patients to “believe that, trials will put extra burden on them. They assume that the conventional treatment is best and they are afraid of the unknown side-effects of new treatment. Convincing and receiving an informed consent from such patient is most difficult. In some case disclosing too much information of the potential side-effects may unnecessarily scare the patient away from a potentially life-saving or life-enhancing surgery or procedure”(Nijhawan 134).
Medication errors are defined as faults in drug prescribing, transcribing, dispensing, monitoring, ordering, and/or administration. These errors have significant potential for injuring or even killing a patient. Discussed below is an article that highlights the dangers of inaccurate drug administration. A case was reported of a 7-year-old boy with Fanconi’s anemia that underwent a successful bone marrow transplant and months later returned to the hospital for a minor febrile episode. The night before his discharge he was given 3.5 gm/m 2 of cytarabine over 2 hours, which the nurse calculated according to his surface area.
Another issue with the evidence-base program is with the randomized control trial (RCT). The used of the randomized control trial is usefulness but not value. According to Tanenbaum (2005), the effectiveness is due to the methods used can be difficult to understand and can have biases associated with the program (p. 165).
Any study that involves subjects concerning human beings should be approved first from the ethics committee before being effected (Chiarelli & Cockburn, 2002). Further, if the paper ever sought for ethical approval is not being mentioned in any section of the article concerning its ethical issues. This is one of the pitfalls noticed at the beginning of the
To accomplish advancements in health systems, it is essential to strive to eradicate major fatal diseases and to manage poverty. Life expectancies are considered on a global level concerning age, sex, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic class, region as well as the level of education, resulting in alarming statistical data. The objective for enhanced health systems incorporates decreasing the rates of morality. The social gradient greatly contributes to social inequalities around the world. Social conditions, for example, the environment in
Roberto Abadie’s (2010) book, The Professional Guinea Pig: Big Pharma and the Risky World of Human Subjects, brings up many ethical issues. Abadie’s enquiry illustrates matters of beneficence, respect for autonomy, and non-maleficence the in pharmaceutical research environment. In the book, Abadie examines the pharmaceutical phase I clinical research and HIV trials from the perspective of trial participants. The majority of Abadie’s narrative focuses on professional guinea pigs. Professional guinea pigs are trial participants that take part in multiple pharmaceutical trials as a way to make a living or to accommodate their chosen lifestyle.
Medication use is potentially dangerous. Polypharmacy is increasing, and makes it harder to keep track of side effects and interactions and of potentially inappropriate drug combinations. “The risk of serious consequences, hospitalization, and death due to medication errors increases with patients’ age and number of medications (Scand J Prim Health Care, 2012)”. For example, the GP is supposed to monitor the patient's regular medication, but does not always do so. Lack of monitoring and keeping track of patients’ medication use is a main cause when a patient is given inappropriate drugs.