Plant Biotechnology Essay

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General introduction
Plant biotechnology includes not only modern but also age-old methods so as to manipulate the organisms for human needs. In this context, biotechnology can be defined as the applications of indigenous and scientific knowledge to the management of microorganisms or cells/tissues of higher organisms or their parts for the benefit of human beings (Verpoorte, 2002; Vanisree, 2004). Karl Ereky (1917) who coined the term biotechnology stated that all types of works are biotechnology by which products are produced from raw materials using living organisms (Edreva, 2008).
Plants are ‘The soul of life’:
Plants are essential to the balance of nature and our sustenance. Plants are the ultimate source of food and metabolic energy
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It is distributed throughout Africa, Asia and Australia. Among Asia, it is found in Pakistan, Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaya, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Sabah, Cambodia, Vietnam, Southern China and Taiwan (Ohashi and Lokawa, 2007). It is found in dry grasslands, waste places, open deciduous forests and in all plains of India (Hooker, 1973). The genus Uraria has more than 11 species known from India, of which Uraria picta is well known for its medicinal properties (Jain and Defilipps, 1991). Uraria picta is 1-15 m tall, apprised pubescent, suffructicose sparingly branched herbs; Stems with short, rough hairs; Leaves imparipinnate with 5-9 leaflets (lowermost leaves often 1-3 foliolate), leaflet narrowly lanceolate, 7-25 cm long (lowermost smaller), often variegated, shiny, and hairless above, rough hairy below; margins entire; Inflorescence a long terminal densely many flowered spike-like raceme, up to 55 cm long, covered in long whitish hairs; Flowers pink, bluish or reddish, complete; Fruit pods 5-9 mm long, folded into 3-6 segments, brown to black, turning grayish-white when old (Okusanya, 1991; Gurav,…show more content…
As roots are indeterminate organs and its growth is unlimited. So, establishment of a protocol for root cultures was one of the great achievements of modern plant tissue culture (Slater et al, 2008).
Biotransformations: The conversion of a small part of a chemical molecule by means of biological systems is termed biotransformation. Implementation of specific enzyme present in cultured cells viz catalyst, glycoxylation, methylation, reduction, hydroxylation, esterification
Hairy root cultures: Transformation of plants with Agrobacterium rhizogenes is one of the plant tissue culture technique which used for increased production of secondary metabolites. These soil bacteria are capable of infecting plant cells and cause the proliferating growth as roots, the so-called ‘hairy roots’. Hairy roots can grow without growth hormones in the medium. Hairy roots have similar production profiles as normal roots.
Biotechnological production: Genetically engineered plant cell culture has great potential for altering the metabolic profile of plants. Cell suspension cultures from transgenic plants can be generated for obtaining the particular plant secondary
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