Plant Micropropagation

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Describe how you would clone a plant using plant micropropagation techniques
Micropropagation is a method of plant propagation using extremely small pieces of plant tissue taken from a carefully chosen and prepared mother plant and growing these under laboratory conditions to produce new plants. The segments of plant tissue culture used for micropropagation are called explants. The stem, root, leaf, flower, ovule, cotyledon, or hypocotyl are usually used for the micropropagation process.
Micropropagation has a very high multiplication rate although it only requires a very small amount of plant tissue. This is extremely valuable in the case that only limited tissue is available. Micropropagation is also a vital technique as it can be carried
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Genetically modified plants are plants which genetic mutations, their traits can be modified or altered by introducing DNA from other species of plants, animals, or even bacteria.
Plants can be cultured in the laboratory in nutrient agar, regenerated from single cells.
If the single somatic cell is modified genetically then the subsequent plant will carry the modification in all cells of the adult regenerated plant.
There are three main techniques for introducing foreign DNA to plant tissue; microinjection, biolistics and biological transfer using the bacteria Agrobacterium.

Microinjection:
A protoplast is a single intact cell, which has been chemically treated to remove the tough outer cellulose wall, leaving only the plasma membrane. The process of microinjection is seldom used due to the fact that it is not always suitable to the type of cell due to their higher internal pressure. When plant cells are punctured, its internal pressure is lost, and the cell dies.

Biolistics:
Biolistics is a way of introducing DNA into plant cells through the insertion of the DNA coated on minute gold particles that are literally shot through the cell wall from a high velocity accelerator. This approach is used for monocot plants such as maize and rice. (Copyright GeneWatch UK ,
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The tumour inducing region of T DNA is removed and replaced with the foreign DNA you want to insert into the plant. The plant cells are then regenerated into a whole plant using micropropagation, treatment of auxin and cytokinin treatment. This results a transgenic plant.

Discuss some of the applications of genetically modified plants in Biotechnology.

References
Arrington, I. D. (2003-2018). Cytokinins in Plants: Function & Concept. Retrieved from Study.com: https://study.com/academy/lesson/cytokinins-in-plants-function-lesson-quiz.html
Blackstone, V. L. (n.d.). Home Guides. Retrieved from homeguides.sfgate.com: http://homeguides.sfgate.com/advantages-waxy-cuticle-provide-leaf-92502.html
Copyright GeneWatch UK . (n.d.). Gene watch . Retrieved from Genewatch.ork: http://www.genewatch.org/sub-532324 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/. (2008-2010). Retrieved from Theagricos.com: http://theagricos.com/tissue-culture/micropropagation/stages-of-micropropagation/
O'Callaghan, M. (2009). Leaving Certificate Biology. (Bookworks, Ed.) Dublin: The Education Company of Ireland.
Torres, K. C. (1989). Tissue Culture Techniques for Horticultural Crops. New York: Van Nostrand

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