Trichoderma biocontrol agents can promote plant growth and stimulate the plant defense mechanisms (Papavizas, 1985; Howell, 2003; Vinale et al., 2008). The mechanisms can be described as: 188.8.131.52) Competition Bio control agents and the pathogens compete with one another for the nutrients and space to get established in the environment. This process of competition is considered to be an indirect interaction between the pathogen and the bio control agent wherein the pathogens are excluded by the way of depletion of food base and via physical occupation of site (Lorito et al., 1994). The most common cause of death of microorganisms is
They also promote the production of other hormones and in conjunction with cytokinins, they control the growth of stems, roots, and fruits, and convert stems into flowers. Auxins were the first class of growth regulators discovered. They affect cell elongation by altering cell wall plasticity. They stimulate cambium, a subtype of meristem cells, to divide and in stems cause secondary xylem to differentiate. Auxins act to inhibit the growth of buds lower down the stems (apical dominance), and also to promote lateral and adventitious root development and
Research Question: How does the presence of light impact the rate of transpiration in plants? Aim: The aim of this experiment was to investigate how the presence of light affects the rate of transpiration in plants. Hypothesis: As light intensity increases, the rate of transpiration (water uptake) in a plant increases. Background Information: In this experiment I will be investigating the impact of light intensity on the rate of water uptake, due to transpiration, by attaching a shoot from a leafy plant in the capillary tube of a potometer, and then measuring how long it takes for a bubble to move a set distance. The faster the bubble moves, the greater the rate of transpiration.
Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studie of roots exaggerated by Cr results inhanced growth of root hairs as well as improved relative quantity of pith and cortical tissue layers (Suseela et al., 2002). Unfavorable property of Cr on plant height and shoot growth has been reported (Rout et al., 1997). The decrease in plant height may be mostly due to the minimized root growth and resulting lower nutrients and water transport to the above parts of the plant. In totaling to this, Cr transportation to the above ground part of the plants can have a straight impact on cellular metabolism of shoots causative to the lessening in plant height. Leaf growth, area development and total leaf number determinedly determine the yield of crops.
Enzymes are biological catalysts that provide an alternative reaction pathway that lowers the activation energy and increases the rate of a reaction. Pectinase breaks down pectin, a polysaccharide found in the cell wall of terrestrial plants. It is most commonly extracted by the fungi “Aspergillus niger”, which produces pectinase to break down the middle lamella; A pectin layer cementing adjoining cell walls together, so that it can extract nutrients from plant tissue through the release of hyphae. By opening glycosidic linkages, “pectinase splits polygalacturonic acid into monogalacturonic acid” which softens the plant cell walls and results in the extraction of
(1994), Glick (1995) and Penrose et al. (2001), have successfully explained the biochemical properties of this enzyme and its functional roles in controlling ethylene production in higher plants. In general, the plant hormone ethylene plays important different roles in the growth of plants, such as root initiation and fruit ripening (Burg and Burg 1962; Arshad and Frankenberger 1991; Kende 1993). As a stress hormone, ethylene is involved in various stress responses induced by biotic (pathogenic attack) and abiotic (environmental) factors. Its biosynthesis starts with the S-adenosylation of methionine to S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) followed by the closing of a cyclopropane ring to form ACC.
SCHOOL OF MOLECULAR AND LIFE SCIENCES LESAILANE M 201505020 BOTANY ASSIGNMENT 1 28/JULY/2017 INTRODUCTION Plants have evolved mechanisms to avoid self-pollination which brings about inbreeding, cross pollination is encouraged. It is of crucial importance that not only does a plant grow to its maturity stage, but also that it should produce fertile offspring and ensure that it maintains genetic continuity of the plant population. Plants are immobile organisms, so they need pollinating vectors to help them transfer pollen from the anthers to the stigma of different flowers, in order to ensure cross-pollination. Animal pollinators are of a huge importance in the production of various ﬂowering plants. Interspeciﬁc pollen transfer
Another example of this would be in fruits and vegetables where the colours of the seed-containing vector remain dull until sexual maturity is reached and new, brighter pigments begin to be produced, these bright colours attract animals to ingest the fruit. The seeds pass through the digestive system of the animal and are excreted in a new location. This benefits plants because it allows for species of plants to seed new individuals in new environments that could be a more suitable niche for the species to
Introduction: Plant foods are rich in polyphenolic compounds that are reducing agents, which act in removing the free radicals and also have several properties like metal chelators, singlet oxygen quenchers and hydrogen donors. Fermentation results in changes of the biochemical components which results in the change in the ratio of the components present in it. Fermentation leads to the increase in polyphenolic compounds which has high antioxidant property. Fermentation not only produces antioxidants, in some cases they also help in inhibiting enzymes that causes hypertension. These properties are clearly studies and used in many food and beverage industries to increase their value.