Both DNA and RNA have five carbon sugar and four nitrogen containing bases. In addition, DNA and RNA can be found in the nucleus of the cell. They are also vital to organisms. They are key to genetic information being created and distributed to various parts for the cell. Since they are primarily located in the nucleus, they essentially play a part in being the "brain of the cell."
This organelle can be found both on the rough ER and free in cytoplasm, but the proteins produced in each place have different functions; proteins produced in the cytoplasm are typically used within the cell while proteins produced by the rough ER are usually exported outside the cell. The ribosomes themselves are produced in nucleolus and cells that need a lot of protein have a lot of ribosomes . With larger diameters than microfilaments, microtubules are stiff organelles that help maintain the cell 's shape as part of the cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton is the structure within the cytoplasm of the cell that helps move organelles inside the cell, therefore microtubules are attributed with the function of intracellular movement . In addition to the cytoskeleton, microtubules also make up the cilia and flagella of the cell.
Summary Endoplasmic reticulum is a eukaryotic organelle that forms interconnected network of cisternae, vesicles and tubules within the cells[1,2]. There are two types of endoplasmic reticulum: rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is covered with ribosomes in its membrane, these ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis. The ribosome free endoplasmic reticulum also know as smooth endoplasmic reticulum, its functions including lipid synthesis, drug detoxification and regulation of calcium concentration[2,3,4]. Furthermore, the endoplasmic reticulum can be isolated from animal soft by centrifugation method and the production form isolation can be used to study the metabolism of lipid and the recovery
The plasma membrane surrounding animal cells is where the exchange of substances inside and outside of cells takes place. That is to say, some substances can pass through a border, such as a cell membrane. The reason why some substances are able to allowed to pass through is due to act of the proteins. Some of the proteins that are stuck in the plasma membrane help to form openings (channels) in the membrane. Through these channels, some substances such as hormones or ions are allowed to pass through.
Eukaryotic cells contain many important organelles and without them the cell cannot function accurately. With organelles such as the nucleus which directs cell activity and contains DNA, ribosomes which make protein, the vacuole which is used for storage and in order for the cell to survive; the mitochondria. The mitochondria are often described as the energy powerhouse of the cell as organisms need energy to maintain homeostasis. The mitochondria are found in the cell cytoplasm and are double membrane enclosed organelles ‘which is best known for its critical function in energy production via oxidative phosphorylation, a pathway that generates many more ATP molecules per glucose molecules than glycolysis’ (John Wiley & sons, 2009) . Mitochondria
The other process was osmosis. Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a membrane from an area of high contraction to an area of low concentration. Osmosis happens in three different environments. Osmosis is like diffusion in it requiring no energy. Osmosis can happen in three different types of environments; Hypertonic, Isotonic and Hypotonic.
There are some integral proteins embedded in the phospholipid bilayer. Carrier protein is one of the integral proteins. The carrier protein provides the passage for the ions or large, polar molecules to move across the cell membrane. Some of the ions or molecules need to make use of the carrier proteins with the help of concentration gradients. Nonetheless, some molecules which are important to human body sometimes need to go against the concentration gradient.
During, Cell Structures Involved in Cell Transport discusses the plasma membrane and its role. The plasma membrane consists of a phospholipid bilayer arranged back – to – back. The phospholipid bilayer contains membrane proteins that perform various functions. These membrane proteins are integral protein, peripheral protein, transport protein, carrier protein, ion channel protein, channel protein and gated channel protein. The membrane is selectively permeable which certain molecules are allowed to enter and exit the cell.
The mitochondrion is one of the most important organelles in eukaryotic cells. Widely referred to as the 'Powerhouse of the Cell', they are a feature present in all types of eukaryotic organisms including chloroplasts (only present in plants and algae). They are membrane enclosed organelles that consist of a smooth outer double membrane structure, the mitochondrial matrix and the narrow intermembrane space. Inside the mitochondria there are many folds called cristae. The outer membrane has many porin molecules on it that act as a filter, allowing small molecules, such as some proteins, to enter the intermembrane space but can't pass through to the impermeable inner membrane.