Substrate concentration basically means the amount used for the substrate. The substrate in our experiment was 0.1% hydrogen peroxide. The 0.1% is the concentration amount. Just like temperature and pH, substrate concentration can speed the reaction only up to a certain limit. When we mixed pH 3 enzyme tube with substrate tube, we used 0.3 mL of hydrogen peroxide, but if we were to increase the amount, then the experiment would have been faster.
The substitution reaction was successful but not fully effective. 19. If the data was inconclusive, then comparing various compounds and the unknown based on physical characteristics would be the first step, titrations would also be a good method. 20. To get a better yield, redoing the experiment would require careful attention in the recrystallization steps: amount of solvent used, how hot solvent is, if the mixture cools to room temperature before placing it in an ice
(2018). Brilliant Biology Student. Retrieved March 1, 2018, from (-- removed HTML --) The activity peaks at a specific temperature depending on that specific enzymes optimum temperature. Optimum temperature is the temperature at which an enzyme is most active. Beyond the optimum temperature the activity of the enzyme decreases.this is where the enzyme starts to denature and becomes inactive.
If the temperature, pH and enzyme concentration is kept constant then the rate of reaction will start to decrease as well as the hydrogen peroxide concentration. Aim: To investigate the effects of changing the concentration of the enzyme catalase that it has on the rate of breaking down the Hydrogen Peroxide solution. Dependant and Independent Variables: The Dependent Variables: Amount of time it takes when the bubbles start to rise till when they stop. The Independent Variable: Amount of Hydrogen Peroxide solution. The Controlled/ Fixed Variables are: • The amount of hydrogen peroxide inserted in each test tube.
The function of enzymes is to speed up reactions by lowering the amount of activation energy needed to get the reaction started. Along with that enzymes can only work in specific temperatures and specific pHs as well. If the temperature or pH is too high or to low, they won 't work as quickly or may not work at all. For enzymes there are two main hypothesizes, these are know as the induced fit hypothesis and the lock and key hypothesis. In the induced fit hypothesis the binding of the substrate changes the shape of the enzyme’s active site.
The 3 bands moved 0.9cm, 1.1cm and 1.5cm from the agarose well respectively (measured from original photograph).When compared to the marker, we can assume that all the 3 bands of DNA are rather large in size compared to genomic DNA, at roughly around 5500-12000 base pairs. The photo showed us that the plasmid DNA is probably adopting a linearized form. When compared to supercoiled genomic DNA form, these linearized forms would contain a higher amount of base pairs and thus, the distance traversed would be at a minimum. Plasmid DNAs are usually in a supercoiled form but as seen in this case, they must have been digested with a restriction endonuclease enzyme that cuts both DNA strands of the plasmid at 2 different recognition sites (therefore giving 3 bands). This would result in a linearized form of DNA, which contains larger amounts of base pairs, resulting in slower traverse speed in the agarose
The two types of cell division processes are mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis is the process where somatic, or non-reproductive, cells are created, while Meiosis is the process that creates gametes, reproductive cells like sperm and eggs. Before discoursing these processes, one must discuss the different forms of genetic material. These are essentially the three forms of a cell’s genetic material. Chromatin is its loosest, least-organized form, which floats freely around inside the nuclear envelope.
13. Repeat steps 1-4 of the sodium chloride solution making and steps 1-12, for 15 trials. Cautions and Warnings Make sure the electronic balance is set to zero, before placing the tissue on it to measure the initial mass, as the estimate will be inaccurate if this step is not followed. If the initial mass of the second tissue differs from the first tissue, make sure to make adjustments to create two equal tissues. For safety issues, make sure there is a far distance between your fingers and the end of the tweezer when removing the tissue, to avoid a cut or
The resolution of the DNA changes with the percentage concentration of the gel. Increasing the agarose concentration of a gel reduces the migration speed and improves separation of smaller DNA molecules, while lowering gel concentration permits large DNA molecules to be separated. For a standard agarose gel electrophoresis, a 0.7% gives good separation or resolution of large 5–10kb DNA fragments, while 2% gel gives good resolution for small 0.2–1k fragments • They are the most popular medium for the separation of moderate and large-sized nucleic acids and have a wide range of separation but a relatively low resolving power, since the bands formed in the gels tend to be fuzzy and spread apart. • This is a result of pore size and cannot be largely controlled. These and other advantages and disadvantages of using agarose gels for DNA electrophoresis are summarized in Table below : Advantages Disadvantages • Gels are quick and easy to cast • Nontoxic gel medium • Good for separating large DNA molecules • Can recover samples by melting the gel, digesting with enzyme agarose • Poor separation of low molecular weight samples • High cost of agarose Fuzzy
Introduction: Enzymes are proteins that function as catalysts, meaning that they increase the speed of a reaction without being changed themselves. The enzyme has two main jobs in a reaction that cause the reaction to increase. The first job is to bring substrates (the substances that the enzyme will be reacting on that bind to the active site in the beginning a reaction) together in an orderly fashion so that they can interact during the reaction. It’s second job is to decrease the energy needed for a reaction to take place. These tasks can be completed more efficiently in specific temperatures or with specific pH levels.
Discussion PV92 Gel Electrophoresis Results: Through the usage of gel electrophoresis the correct allele for each sample was able to be determined. Lanes one through three in the gel,were the positive control lanes they contained the PCR cocktail and a known high-quality template for the PCR reaction. First lane contained the sample with the +/+ allele, which had two copies of the ALU repeat allele. The first lane had a band at about 941 base pairs. The second lane in the gel contained the -/- allele and had its band at about 641bp, lower than the +/+ allele in lane 1.
Figure 6 shows the glass container with a soil that is susceptible to liquefaction. The proponents provided a set of containers to observe different data. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Test In a certain sample sent in Mindanao State University, Iligan City for SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) test, results show that the bacteria reacted from the water of the soil which produces chemical reaction and affects the physical attribute of the soil. Image below shows that a limestone like structure really exists in the soil where Bio-Vege Grout was injected. Figure 7 shows the image without grout being magnified 1000 times its normal appearance.
Indicators are chemical compounds used to detect the presence of other compounds. Indicators are easy, quick and cost efficient way to test for macromolecules present (or absent) in compounds and solutions. There are several indicators which can be used however only three will be discussed and used in this experiment. Iodine detects starch and can therefore be used to test for carbohydrates, Sudan III detects water insoluble substances and thus is used to test for lipids and Biuret & Copper sulphate detects peptide bonds and is used to test for proteins. These compounds change to a unique colour when they come into contact with their designated macromolecule and this is used in labs to identify the macromolecules present in solutions (A colour change of an indicator is usually a positive test for the presence of an organic compound).
Metoprolol should be taken by mouth, with or right after a meal, 100 mg and one to three times a day. To reduce your risk of side effects, this medication should start at a low dose and gradually increase. This drug should not be stopped suddenly. A diuretic should only be used if there is an increase in fluid intake. Furosemide is a loop diuretic that prevents the body from absorbing excess salt.
The Solid sequencing platform, produced by Technologies/Applied Biosystems (ABI), performs sequencing by ligation method. Similar like the Roche 454 library preparation, genomic double strand DNA were sheared into small pieces and ligated with two types of adatptors P1 and P2 on two ends. One end with P1 adaptor binds onto the surface of the magnetic bead and emulsion PCR takes place to amplify single nucleotide fragment. Then the oil was washed out and four fluorescent labeled di-bases probes were added into the beads mixture. By matching the 1st and 2nd position of the template by di-base probes, fluorescence was detected and the extra tail with fluorescent probe is cleaved out.