Patients RDW, WBC, and platelets are high, (Patients chart, 2017). Labs Hgb Hct, MCV, and RBCs all relates to the red blood cells in the body. These tests are taken when patients come in complaining of dizziness, fatigue, and lack of food or fluid intakes for the past few days. These tests also amount for the total RBC cells within the body. The results of this test say if the patient is lacking few vitamins. It also identifies what type of disease the patient might have. For example, this patient has pernicious anemia which indicates problems with iron deficiency. Creatinine and BUN relates to the Kidneys and shows if the kidneys are still being able to filter or work properly. Low calcium indicates bone problem, hear failure, and problems with the kidneys, ((Pagana, K., Pagana, T.,
Moake et al. detected the presence of unusually large von Willebrand factor (ULVWF) multimers in plasma of patients with TTP and suspected that the ULVWF mulitmers were responsible for platelet clumping in the microvasculature. Moreover, they hypothesised that there was a lack of a depolymerase for the ULVWF (Moake et al. 1982). From then on, the lack of ULVWF depolymerase or the VWF-cleaving protease (VWFcp) was known to be responsible for TTP and was further established from then on (Lämmle et al. 2005; Furlan 2004; Tsai 2004; Moake
Then five millilitres of sample “A” were placed in the test tube labeled “A”. This was then repeated with the next three samples. Each sample was visually observed and the colour of each was recorded. Next 20 drops of Benedict’s solution were added to each test tube and the test tubes were lowered into a hot bath at a temperature of approximately 80 degrees Celsius. All colour changes were recorded. Next, the test tubes were carefully cleaned with soap and water. Then five millilitres of sample “A” was placed in the test tube labeled “A”. This was then repeated with the next three samples. Then a few drops of each sample were placed on glucose/ketone paper. Each piece of glucose/ketone paper (with the sample on top) was compared to the label on the glucose paper bottle. The percentage of glucose was recorded for each sample. Next, the test tubes were carefully cleaned with soap and water. Then five millilitres of sample “A” was placed in the test tube labeled “A”. This was then repeated with the next three samples. 20 drops of Biuret reagent were then added to each test tube. The colour of each test tube was recorded and if proteins were present that was recorded for each test tube. Finally, the pH was recorded for each sample using pH
MS is one of many degenerative neurological autoimmune disease involving the body’s immune and nervous systems. The nerves throughout the body are insulated by a compound composed of a mixture of proteins and phospholipids
The first test was Orthonitrophenylgalactophyranoside (ONPG), which tests for lactose fermentation, and my result was colorless so it was negative. Next was Arginine Dihydrolase (ADH), and my result was yellow/orange so it was negative. My results for Lysine Decarboxylase (LDC) were yellow/orange, which told me my unknown was negative. The Ornitine Decarboxylase (ODC) results were yellow so it, too, was negative. My Citrate (CIT) result was turquoise so that meant the test was positive, and the Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) had no black precipitate so it was negative. The Urea (URE) and Tryptophane Deaminase (TDA) results were both an orange color, which meant they were both negative. For Indole (IND), my result was yellow so it was negative. My result was colorless for the Voges Proskauer (VP) test so it was negative. The Gelatin (GEL) test result had no diffusion of pigment so that showed it was negative. The Glucose (GLU) result was yellow so it was positive, and the Mannitol (MAN) result was blue-green so it was negative. The Inositol (INO), Sorbitol (SOR), Rhamnose (RHA), and Sucrose (SAC) test results were all blue-green so they were all negative, as well as the Amygdalin (AMY) test. The Melibiose (MEL), Arabinose ARA, nitrate reduction, and catalase tests were all positive, and the oxidase test was
Nrf2-ARE is the pathway that is limited by divalproex. This is an important pathway needed to protect the liver and prevent damage. Nrf2-ARE pathway prevents oxidative damage. Nrf2 translocate into the nucleus when the liver is in oxidative stress in order to active and transcribe different genes that produce phase II detoxifying enzymes as well as antioxidant enzymes. These enzymes will bind to ARE and become activated to protect hepatic cells from oxidative damage. Without Nrf2 cells have a greater probability of becoming damaged by
38.phospholipid- A lipid that consists of a hydrophilic glycerol head and two hydrophobic fatty acid tails. Phospholipids are found in cell membranes.
If cells become oxygen deficient, the condition known as hypoxia (no oxygen) occurs. This condition can be due to abnormally acidic blood or a lack of critical enzymes necessary for releasing oxygen from red blood cells, so when this oxidative cycle is oxygen deficient, it can’t produce the quantity nor quality of ATP necessary for normal cellular functioning.
What are Gary 's current health problems? (Tip: don 't forget the beginning history from last week)
“ Multiple sclerosis cam be defined as an autoimmune disease that affects the myelin sheath and conduction of pathway of the nervous system (CNS). It is one of the leading causes of neurologic disabilities in young adults. It is a chronic disease that is characterized by periods of remission and exacerbation.” (Ignataviscius & Workman, 2013, p. 978) Multiple sclerosis affects all patient’s differently, progressing at different rates over different periods of time. “As the severity and duration of the disease progress, the periods of exacerbation become more frequent, however patient’s with MS have a normal life expectancy as long as the effects of the disease are treated.” (Ignataviscius & Workman, 2013, p. 978)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disorder that can affect any organ in the body. Symptoms range from mild to severe. SLE most commonly is found in women and of those of African American descent. Due to the immune system failing it causes inflammation and damage to many body tissues. Currently, there is no cure for lupus although with drugs people can be just as healthy. Skin lesions can also develop due to prolong sun exposure.
Our body has a natural defense mechanism that kicks into gear whenever a foreign substance enters it. When the body’s normal defenses is not able to prevent or overcome a disease, antimicrobial drugs can be used to fight off the disease. One of the most important discoveries of modern medicine was antibiotics. Things have changed from where little could be done to treat many lethal infectious diseases to now, where some of these drugs could be called “miracle” drugs.
The purpose of this research was to identify how hyperlipidemia affects heart performance. Hyperlipidemia is a condition in which excess cholesterol and triglycerol are present in the blood stream, and this study focused on the impact of high cholesterol. The activation of KATP channels by activators, cromakalim and diazoxide, is a cardioprotective mechanism seen in animals. The study focused on male Wistar rats, where ventricular tissue was extracted and processed for comparison between normal diet and cholesterol fed rats, while many tests included PCR analysis, Western blot analysis, etc. Cholesterol fed rats vs. normal fed rats showed a decrease in cardiac ATP production, an increase
Safety is a primary concern in any laboratory environment, and it is especially important in a physician’s office laboratory because patients and laboratory workers may be at risk. For your own protection, as well as that of patients and coworkers, you must always be aware of and observe laboratory safety guidelines. The operation of a POL can have a significant impact on the health of the patients who depend on the medical practice for care. Accurate patient specimen testing is a primary concern. A quality assurance program is designed to monitor the quality of the patient care a medical laboratory provides. In response to public concern over the accuracy of laboratory tests, Congress enacted the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 CLIA ’88. This law placed all laboratory facilities that conduct tests for diagnosing, preventing, or treating human disease or for assessing human health under federal regulations administered by the Health Care Financing Administration HCFA and the CDC. tests of high complexity include more complicated tests in the specialties and subspecialties, including tests in clinical cytogenics, histopathology, histocompatibility, and cytology, and any test not yet categorized by the
This paper scrutinises on the importance of agglutination reactions in clinical testing and diagnosis of various diseases. The ability of various antigens and antibodies to agglutinate when mixed in desired environment has been used as the basis to detect the presence of respective antigens in body. It focuses on importance of this method as it gives the results faster than various other methods and provides visible results. Diagnosis of various diseases can be done by this method provided the antibodies are present in blood, urine, plasma or fluid of bone marrow. The following paper discusses the clinical application of agglutination reaction in testing the ABO, Rh blood grouping, test for typhoid