Discuss the role of reason according to Kant. Show how reason is tied to autonomy and to Kant requirement that we respect others. Consider any weaknesses in Kant 's emphasis on reason in his moral theory. Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher who was widely considered to be a central figure of modern philosophy. He argued that fundamental concepts structure human experience, and that reason is the source of morality.
He could have fixated on the positive and negative consequences of a person's actions; such as what impact Euthyphro's prosecution would have on his family. Or, he could have fixated on whether a particular action complies with the rules or not, such as the question of whether his father transgressed a law. These are some approaches of other philosophers. However, these were not Plato's main intrigues; Plato was eager instead to consider, what actions are most salutary for the human soul. As a result, Plato is kenned for his fixate on virtue ethics, an approach to ethics that places highlight on one's moral character.
The republic is an enquiry into the nature of justice. This required redesigning the polis from first principles. Plato argued that truly good conduct and the truly good state have to be based on true knowledge of things in themselves; that is, of the forms or ideas that underlie the world of appearances. Plato seems to have had an unlimited faith in the power of the mind. Plato was looking at justice starting from the individual and then, to make things clearer, in the state.
He was greatly influenced by Aristotle, David Hume, and Plato. His main interests were epistemology, metaphysics, and ethics. Kant made the basis for an ethical law from the concept of duty. Kant believed that people should obey the law no matter what their morals are. When we pay taxes, we can use the categorical imperative theory.
Firstly, the dialogue between Socrates and Thrasymachus starts with the question that justice is the interest of the stronger or not. For this Thrasymachus says: “…in all states there is the same principle of justice, which is the interest of the government; and as the government must be supposed to have power, the only reasonable conclusion is, that everywhere there is one principle of justice, which is the interest of the stronger.” (Plato, The Republic, book I, page 16) In this point, Socrates gets an idea that the government, the ruler or gold group of the city get a justice even when they are not right. The rulers always right, because they get a benefit by injustice. In this case, Thrasymachus’s point is when ruler gets a justice by injustice, and it is a winner. The ruled gets an injustice by justice, and it is a loser.
1 For Plato the chief distinction between knowledge and opinion is that knowledge is fixed, absolutely and eternally true (correct), while opinions are changeable and “unanchored.” Only in the realm of becoming can opinions change from true to false. 2 Plato wanted the theory of Forms to provide a rational explanation of how knowledge is possible. The forms are the foundation of Plato’s bold answer to the sophist’ skeptical assault on knowledge and to their relativistic rejection of universal (absolute) truths. Defense of absolute, unchanging truth is difficult under the best circumstances. Plato knew that unless he could offer more than faith in the existence of absolutes, more authoritarians and dogmatic pronouncement her would fail as a philosopher.
Aristotle borrowed the notion of a form from Plato. As principle of structure, forms existed for Aristotle only if they actually structured something. Plato also taught that the material things of this world have the natures they have because they “participate” in the Forms, which are principles of structure. Aristotle makes the claim that Platonic ideas are useless for explaining “coming to be,” or how and why things exist (p. 291). He specifically mentions the theory of “forms” which Plato introduced in his text, The Republic.
He rather reluctantly tells Glaucon of his “single noble lie that would, preferably, persuade even the rulers themselves,” (414c) - the Myth of the Metals. His goal in this is to create a tale that will be believed by their sons, by later generations, and all people who come after because “all this will go where tradition leads,” (414e). To ban stories entirely would prevent him from implementing this measure, which he uses to establish social order and hierarchy. XXXX The stringent rules of Socrates’ censorship are designed to expose the citizens of Kallipolis to only the most virtuous exemplars of literature, poetry, and art in order to teach them how to live that life for themselves. The classic works of Hesiod and Homer are either castrated or banned entirely for fear of the disturbing and disruptive ideas and imagery they present.
Thomas Hobbes a 17th century philosopher who is best known for his political philosophy. The idea that nature is competitive, where morality only appears when we enter into society and it is backed up by the power of the sovereign. Hobbes define human nature as sensational because sensation is the source of all of our thoughts. We seek out pleasant experience and we avoid unpleasant experiences. For example death is an unpleasant experience where people are fearful losing their lives.
Indeed in Plato’s ideal republic the state’ laws are replaced by the “philosopher king’s” law. These philosopher kings were to be trained and would do so through rationally perceived dictates of ultimate virtue. They would cease to be encumbered by the various legal forms but instead become characterised by wisdom and be accepted through its very excellence. The closest Plato nears to the concept of natural law theory is in the Republic whereby he analogises health, as the natural order of the body, and justice as the natural order of things within the state, and in his discussion of the formal idea of justice as “just by nature” and finally in Laws, in which the Athenian Stranger, discussing how one would establish a state in which laws have a greater power than the rulers, proposes to speak about divine law which would supply the need for a governing higher