In Equus we see the divide between rationality and passion, the two ends of the spectrum, and by using Socrates’ views on madness we can analyze and solve the divide. Socrates states in his second speech in Plato’s Phaedrus, that madness can be a gift from the gods, and that some of the
In Meno, Meno and Socrates are discussing Virtue and attempting to develop a definition of what Virtue is. At one point in the dialogue Meno states that Virtue is “desiring fine things and being able to acquire them” Baird and Kaufmann, 156). In their attempts to analyze this definition they discuss evil, what it is and whether or not it is ever desired by people. I will use this discussion to answer the beginning question from Plato’s perspective and show that, through Socrates and Meno, Plato demonstrates that evil is a form of ignorance, and as we know from Plato’s Allegory of the Cave, ignorance is one of the most damaging states a human can exist in. In On Free Will, Augustine comes to a very similar conclusion.
Critique of the Epicurus’ theory of the most valuable pleasure The goal of this essay is to provide an argument against possibility of Epicurus’ attempt to determine the most valuable pleasures. Through the analysis of the key concepts and their relation in Epicurus’ theory I will try to show that his concept of pleasure does not take into account basic human psychology and that this oversight leads to faulty generalization about human nature. I will argue that it is not possible to identify the most valuable pleasure due to diversity of our personalities. In order to understand Epicurus’ pursuit for the most valuable pleasure it is necessary to explain the notions of pleasure and desires. Pleasure is defined negatively as absence of physical pain and mental distress .
Dionysian Tragedy “Is pessimism inevitably the sign of decline, decadence, waywardness, of wearied, enfeebled instincts?” (3) In The Birth of Tragedy, Friedrich Nietzsche reveals the origins and foundations of Greek tragedy and arts through Apollonian and Dionysian spirits. Apollonian spirit is an impulse to create and to achieve dreams because it provides the audience with visible and sensible figures. Apollonian spirit represents logic, consciousness and individualism. The exact opposite of Apollonian, Dionysian, arouses irrationality and instincts. Apollonian and Dionysian spirits complement each other.
Socratic Dialogue in “The Decay of Lying” In Oscar Wilde’s 1889 essay, “The Decay of Lying,” Wilde makes an inflammatory and risky statement with his choice of form and style. The use of Socratic dialogue was a throwback to Plato’s time when art was truly valued and appreciated and social issues were not discussed by long, uneventful, and rather boring novels. Wilde speaks on a profound subject through this form because of his distaste with realism and his motivation to steer the focus of literature toward the Greek ideal. Oscar Wilde’s choice of dialogue is an appropriation of an earlier generation and a spectacle for his current time that started progressive conversations and added new subjects to the social agenda. Wilde deeply cared about
In Experience and Nature (1925) maybe his greatest work, Dewey defended his naturalistic view of mind and knowledge, and criticized the philosophical norm for its hypothesis of false divides between mind and matter, thought and object, theoretical and practical. The philosophical norm is overwhelmed by dualisms which guide to fake troubles, problems of establishing contact between realms that should never have been set against each other in the first place. The source of these dualisms is a split in being established by the ancient Greeks, a split between the perfect, permanent, self-possessed and the defective, changing,
The presence of greed utilized by Chaucer in the Pardoner’s tale presents satire as his character is meant to be honorable, yet, behind the scenes is actually the most unethical one. The first example the audience is shown of this fraud is as the pardoner explains his motives, when he states, “Of avarice and of swich cursednesse/ Is al my prechyng, for to make hem free/ To yeven hir pens; and namely, unto me!/ For myn entente is nat but for to wynne,/ And no thyng for correccioun of synne” (114 – 118). The Pardoner is extremely upfront regarding his greedy motives as seen in the quote “For myn entente is nat but for to wynne,” (117). The sole reason he is in this game is no other reason than to make money. The revelation of this goal results in an ironic situation as his job consists of preaching against greed, while the only reason of his employment is driven by his own greed.
The greatest happiness principle says that actions are right in proportion that they tend to promote happiness; wrong as they tend to produce the opposite of happiness. By happiness is intended pleasure and the absence of pain; by unhappiness, pain and the privation of pleasure. According to John Stuart Mill, pleasure can be measured along the following parameters: intensity, duration, certainty or uncertainty, propinquity or remoteness, fecundity, purity and extent. In contrast, rule-utilitarianism believes in an ideal code or set of rules. An act is wrong if and only if it is forbidden by the best set of rules whose internalization by the overwhelming majority of everyone everywhere in each new generation has maximum expected value in terms of well-being.
“The world is my representation” (Schopenhauer 1); Schopenhauer contends that at even the universe’s crux, it is not a rational place, but merely a chaotic abyss made into what one makes of it. Having recognized the errors of his philosophical mentors, Plato and Kant, Schopenhauer developed an ascetic approach to mending the errors ingrained in us through the human condition, which preaches that in a world full of pain and suffering, human beings must combat natural desires to attain tranquility and a disposition warranting widespread magnanimity. Although regarded as a categorical pessimist, Schopenhauer endorsed methods, implementing artistic, moral and ascetic systems of cognizance, to appease the fundamentally painful and tenuous circumstances
However, a good tragedy would rely on the realistic nature of the action, as well as the emotions which are procured to the audience, and in the lights of Aristotle’s argument, those emotions would be predominantly those of pity and fear. This feeling of pity and fear is meant to stimulate a sense of katharsis, in other words, purgatory or purification