Protagoras Summary

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What is the nature and source of human justice, according to Protagoras in Protagoras?
According to Protagoras, all creatures are created from earth and water, including people. In the stage of the origin of life, everyone is the same, consisting of soil and water. They are not different from each other; no one is born noble, and no one born inferior. Every creature is equal, equal in life, and equal in origin. Some animals are powerful, some animals are fast, and large animals rely on their strength. Small animals can also protect themselves. Every animal has survival skills, and all living organisms have equal rights.
Protagoras divides the origin of the states into two levels. The first level is a natural state. In the primitive stage of
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Plato believes that there are three main classes of ideal human society. A person should belong to one of these three classes, and the division of people is depended on natural factors. If every individual performs his or her duties, that is, producers, auxiliaries, and guardians fulfill their respective obligations in the states and do not interfere with each other, would be justice, and render the country become a just state. The city is just due to people in three class performed their function, and make the states brave, wise, and temperate because of some other emotions and hobbies of these three classes.
Plato thinks there are three qualities in the human soul, namely the rational, the passion, and the concupiscent. The three are part of the body that people use to learn, anger, and meet natural desires. The rational is that people used to think and reasoning. The passion could make people feel anger. The appetite is a part that people use to feel love, hunger, thirst, and flitter and titillation of other desires, and it is also the companion of repletion and pleasure. Just like the justice of the city, the three classes perform their duties. If the three qualities of each play their roles, then this person is just. These three qualities in a person coexist in harmony, and rational play a leading role. Passion and concupiscent accept the leadership of the rational. The
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People can only acquire true knowledge if they know true good. The Form of the Good is helping the soul from the visible world into the intelligible world. The process of education is the conversion of the soul. Education allows people gradually move out of the visible world and gain real knowledge. Plato’s morality is based on rational cognition. People can only be moral if they know the highest good. If people do not know what is good and what is evil, just repeat the precedent or custom behavior. Even if they can be law-abiding, it is not ethical behavior. Good is the highest goal pursued by Plato in ethics. The cultivation of good must depend on the mastery of true
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