In response to the long-standing philosophical question of immorality, many philosophers have posited the soul criterion, which asserts the soul constitutes personal identity and survives physical death. In The Myth of the Soul, Clarence Darrow rejects the existence of the soul in his case against the notion of immortality and an afterlife. His primary argument against the soul criterion is that no good explanation exists for how a soul enters a body, or when its beginning might occur. (Darrow 43) After first explicating Darrow 's view, I will present what I believe is its greatest shortcoming, an inconsistent use of the term soul, and argue that this weakness impacts the overall strength of his argument. Darrow insists that, if existing, the soul, which he explains is often thought of as synonymous with identity, consciousness or memory, would have to appear sometime during a person 's conception.
He says that the body can be divided into pieces but the mind/soul are indivisible. Elizabeth of Bohemia argues against Cartesian dualism by saying that humans have physical and nonphysical elements and we’re not a cogito. She says that physical things cause physical things to move, and if the mind doesn’t have a physical component then there's
The antiquated Greeks recognized significantly the spirit and the body as the proclamation expresses: "The body is a tomb." Evil thusly was an aftereffect of an interminable soul caught in a limited body. Plato for example was unequivocally dualistic in that he communicated the view that the spirit exists autonomously of the body. The sound soul is an otherworldly substance unmistakable from the body inside which it stays, much like the chariot and a charioteer. Dualism filled an awesome need in the European Renaissance when Descartes portrayed the psyche only as a substance that considers a matter only as a broadened substance.
The point that Sextus has made within this quote is that those who do not judge will achieve peace, and that nothing is really ever known beyond the realm of experience. With that being said, it is possible to extend Sextus ' idea to mankind 's morality. Sextus believes that even as a skeptic it is possible to achieve serenity following a number of things. The article Sextus Empiricus, Outlines of Pyrrhonism is making a point surrounding the idea that if you are not judgmental, then you can achieve serenity. Sextus believes that because everything has two sides to it, this then leads us to the first reason to suspend judgement (Sextus, p.1) Suspension of judgement could be taken
While the process that led to his first absolute certainty regarding his existence was impressive, the fact that he proposed his existence as the key to God’s existence demolished the credibility of his argument (Discourse on Method and Meditations on First Philosophy, p.70). For Descartes to exist, he believed that thoughts must come as a precondition. We understand that thoughts could only be able to process through a living organism. Before and right after the point at which his existence was proven as an absolute certainty, he had not confirmed that other living being could be capable of the same ability, thus if Descartes died then his thoughts would also being lost, his existence would be unproven and the very basis for the existence of God would be gone. The second problem with his argument lied within the cause and effect argument, in which there must exists a God whose presence encompassed everything.
The Trinities of Power and Modification re-expresses Substance within itself through production of natura naturata (attributes and modes). Spinoza continues to build his proof of God’s necessary existence to prove that God is causa sui, a self-caused immutable being on Descartes’ absurd argument of quantities of reality. The Cartesian hypothesis claims that if I have the power to create myself, it would be much easier to give myself properties of which I have an idea; and it would be less difficult to preserve myself than to create myself. What can do more can do less. So if it is more difficult to create or preserve a substance than to create its properties, substance would have more reality than the properties themselves.
Riley’s hypothesis of the divine influences in Christianity. The divine influence is the beginning of the God of Christianity and is how monotheism arose in cultures where polytheistic religions had long prevailed. This chapter focuses on the concepts of creation in the ancient world (prior to Christianity), the role of gods and humans in the material world, how humans reached heaven, and types of monotheism. These sections are to be expected in an analysis of the relationship between ancient religions to Christianity, but Dr. Riley’s “Greek Science and the Monad” is the most fascinating in the discussion of the divine influences in Christianity. In this section, Dr. Riley declares this to be the origin of the concept of the Christian god, rather than it deriving from the religions of the Near East.
There is something in this idea that can be applied to morality. Some actions, like journeys, have value regardless of the outcomes they produce. Williams brings this point about to show how the utilitarian’s focus on consequences might not be the best way to assign value to actions, since it has no way of accounting for the intrinsic values actions may have. Here I have to agree with Williams. The manner in which consequentialist judge actions does not seem to allow any room for considering a person’s intent behind choosing to commit that act.
In the external side of the body, God creates the body with the same colors and shapes of all the parts of the human body. In the internal side of the body, God creates the body the same organs as the human body that allow to conduct the same mechanistic internal acts (e.g. breathe). Taking this view into consideration, Descartes thinks that the human body itself possesses a mechanical explanation and acts based on the disposition of their organs without reason. As Descartes asserts, this allows the body “to imitate all those of our functions”.
If God’s essence is the same as his existence, then his existence cannot be proven using the words and concepts of secular logic (Tillich, 1952: 205). As a being, one’s identity must be identical with existence, in order to have essence, it must also be that of one’s entire action and expression. No human being can have this. Our daily “existence”, which is our daily actions, have been created slowly by and built up by our “essence”. To have a goal, or a set of goals in one’s mind is of concern in Tillich’s mind.