Pneumocephalus Research Paper

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The brain is surrounded by fluid (cerebrospinal fluid or CSF) held in by a sack (dura). Pneumocephalus occurs when you have air inside your skull and around your brain (intracranial air). This can happen for many reasons, such asbrain surgery (neurosurgery) or any other condition that can lead to a tear in the dura.
Pneumocephalus may not cause symptoms and the body may absorb the air over time. However, if intracranial air builds up and cannot be released or absorbed, it can put pressure on your brain (tension pneumocephalus). Tension pneumocephalus is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.

Neurosurgery is a common cause of pneumocephalus. Other causes include:
• Back surgery.
• Brain or skull injury.
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• Anesthesia injected into the spinal canal (epidural anesthesia).
• Procedures to drain CSF, such as anexternal ventricular drain or lumbar drain.
• Sinus or ear surgery.
• Breathing oxygen forced through a mask (positive pressure ventilation).
• Infections of the brain. This is rare.
• Infections of the bone behind the ear (mastoiditis). This is rare.
Sometimes, the cause is not known (spontaneous pneumocephalus).

This condition may not cause signs or symptoms. If you do have signs or symptoms, they may include:
• Headache.
• Confusion.
• Restlessness.
• Hearing a splashing sound when you move your head.
• Changes in vision.
• Loss of consciousness.
• Seizures.
• High blood pressure.
• Slow heart
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