Abstract Background: Malaria is a major contributor to child ill health; more than 10 million of the world’s children die each year before reaching the age of five. In Africa, where the majority of Malaria occurs, the highest mortality affects children less than 5 years of age. Objective: The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence rate and risk factors of malaria infection
Childhood poverty is a serious issue across the world. For children, poverty is defined as the deprivation of necessary aspects of life such as, nutrition, health, water, education, or shelter. According to Unicef, 47 percent of those living in extreme poverty are 18 years old or younger which means that nearly 385 million children are living in poverty worldwide (based on data from 89 countries).This is a staggering result as this means that children account for almost half of the world’s extreme poor. According to the World Bank Group and Unicef, the youngest children are the worst off. More than one-fifth of children under the age of five in the developing countries face extreme poverty compared to 15% of 15-17 year old that live in poverty.It is appalling that children, as young as five years old are in danger.
Deaths due to malaria reached a peak at 1.82 million in 2004 and then fell to 1.24 million in 2010 (714,000 children <5 years and 524,000 individuals ≥5 years); over 80 percent of the deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa.[1,13]. P. falciparum predominates in Africa, New Guinea, and Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic); P. vivax is more common than P.falciparum in Americas and the western
Malnutrition is estimated to contribute to more than one third of all child deaths and more than 50% of childhood mortality in children under 5 years old although it is rarely listed as the direct cause(1). Malnutrition is a broad term commonly used to indicate under nutrition but technically it also refers to over nutrition. The basic causes of malnutrition include formal and informal institutions: political, economic and ideological structure and system. Health service availability with other causes like infection particularly frequent or persistent diarrhoea, pneumonia, measles and malaria that undermine child's nutritional status and play important role in increased incidence of malnutrition. According to United Nations Children’s Fund
Africa has the worlds biggest share of maternal deaths with over 50% in the year 2010. Equatorial Guinea has achieved Goal 5, with an 81 per cent reduction in the maternal mortality ratio since 1990, and Eritrea and Egypt are both on track (WHO) In Southern Africa however, the rate continues to rise most likely due to HIV/AIDS v=The sixth goal is to combat Malaria, HIV/Aids and Other diseases. The spread if hiv is to be halted as well as malaria and other major diseases. More than 1.4 million people have received treatment per year, this has prevented approximately 2.5 million deaths. 200,000 deaths from malaria have been prevented each year where the disease is endemic.
In 2000, malaria was the principal cause of (around 18%) deaths among children under 5 years of age in sub Saharan Africa. Malaria is also a significant indirect cause of death; malaria related maternal anemia in pregnancy, low birth weight and premature delivery are estimated to cause 75,000-200,000 infant deaths per year in Africa South of the Sahara (1, 2). Despite the highest magnitude of this devastating disease, most countries did not start implementing program to provide access to the tools and strategies recommended by Roll Back Malaria until 2000. In many countries in Africa where the burden of malaria is greatest, scaling up access to treatment and prevention began even more recently. Globally, it is agreed to reduce the burden of malaria by half by the year 2010 and again by half by2015 (1).
U.S. Council of Environmental Quality 3. "One common factor among women with breast cancer is that they all have 50-60 percent higher levels of these chlorination byproducts (THMs) in their fat tissue than women without breast cancer..." BreastCancerFund.org You may want to read items one through three again in light of the EPA's more recent review of 23 peer-review studies of cancer incidence from the past 50 years. They determined infants up to age two are, on average, ten times more vulnerable to carcinogenic chemicals than adults. They also stated that for some cancer-causing agents children are up to 65 times more vulnerable! 4.
Each year, an estimated 1.5 million Americans sustain a TBI. As a result of these injuries, 50,000 people die, 230,000 people are hospitalized and survive, and an estimated 80,000-90,000 people experience the onset of long-term disability.17 Population based studies in the United States suggested that incidence of traumatic brain injury is between 180-250/100,000 population per year.12 In Europe, from studies in six countries, an aggregate hospitalized plus fatal TBI incidence rate of about 235 per 100,000 was
The national teenage pregnancy rate in the United States has declined drastically over the last two decades and is at a historic low. According to the National Association of Social Workers (NASW), between 1990 and 2010, the rate declined by 51 percent-from 116.9 to 57.4 pregnancies per 1,000 teenage girls (p. 8). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states that, "In 2015, a total of 229,715 babies were born to women aged 15-19 years, for a birth rate of 22.3 per 1,000 women in this age group. This is another record low for U.S. teens and a drop of 8% from 2014". One of the major factors thought to be contributing to the decline is improvements in contraceptive use and teenagers using contraception more effectively.
Preterm delivery associated with significant short term and long term neonatal morbidity causes almost 75% of all neonatal deaths . In Kenya, 193,000 babies are born preterm each year and 13,300 children under five die due to direct preterm complications . Associations between maternal diet and preterm delivery have been shown where even small restrictions in a mother's nutrition around the time of conception leads to premature births and long-term adverse health effects for the offspring. A proportion of idiopathic (unknown cause) pre term births are associated with maternal under nutrition before the start of the pregnancy, during, and after . In developing countries, it has been estimated that poor nutritional status in pregnancy accounts for 14% of fetuses with IUGR, and maternal stunting may account for a further 18.5%