Pneumonia Literature Review

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1.3 Literature Review Pneumonia Morbidity and Mortality burden among under- five children Morbidity: Incidence and Prevalence The rate of new pneumonia infections is high among children aged less than five years worldwide. The 2012 -Bulletin of world health organization (WHO) reported that 0.26 episodes per child-year of pneumonia was estimated worldwide with the significant variation in the incidence of pneumonia across WHO regions .The incidence of pneumonia infection estimated in developing countries by the same report to be 0.29 episodes in developing countries, which can be translated to about 151.76 million deaths annually (8). In Ethiopia ,there are very few studies carried out so far on the prevalence of pneumonia and its…show more content…
Approximately 20% of the 9 million estimated deaths in children aged less than five years in- 2007 was ascribed to pneumonia. Again, about 19% of all deaths in children aged less than five years in 2008 was attributable to pneumonia. However, the 2014 estimates of pneumonia mortality by the UNICEF indicates that the disease was responsible for 15% of under five deaths in 2013. And, out of 64% of all infectious causes of under- five mortality in 2010, pneumonia still takes the big share of 18.3% worldwide .The contribution of pneumonia to the deaths of older children was estimated to reach 14.1%- with approximately four percent of childhood-pneumonia related death occurred in the first 28 days of life globally (14). The under- five pneumonia death in 68 countries is almost equal to the global pneumonia mortality in the same age group with more than 98 % child death happen in these regions . In 2011, about 1.3 million children aged less than five years died of pneumonia globally. The same report showed that the case fatality ratio of pneumonia reached up to 8.9% worldwide…show more content…
The 2008 WHO report showed there were 389,000 under five deaths, of which 22% were due to pneumonia. In 2010, pneumonia was responsible for 21% of all under five deaths in the country 5, only one percent reduction over the 4 years period. According to the recent 2014 countdown to 2015 report , however, the toll of under- five pneumonia deaths has supposedly plummeted to 18% ,which is among the highest even compared to the load in the majority of African countries. Nonetheless, there are only scant source of data on this problem locally. For instance, a case control study in Gilgel Gibe revealed that 42% of post neonatal and 22.6% of neonatal mortality were attributable to pneumonia (16). Determinants of under- five pneumonia Socio demographic characteristics Both the incidence of and mortality from pneumonia widely vary across the age of the child where children younger than 2 years of age disproportionately bear about 81% of the overall under- five pneumonia morbidity burden (17) . There is also evidences on the difference in incidence of pneumonia between boys and girls, with the higher episodes of pneumonia occurred among boys ( 8). However, this result is in contrary to other finding where gender of the child did not affect the occurrence of child hood pneumonia (17). Being the socio cultural factor, birth order is among the lists of

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