Postmodernism in Urdu Fiction Post Modernism and Modernism: a host-parasite relationship Modernism and Post Modernism have been the two dominant theories in the last fifty odd years and much of the creative writings in all literature have been analyzed and reviewed against the parameters of the two said literary theories. Modernism though surrendered the initiative under the onslaught unleashed by the votaries of Post Modernism and the eponymous character of the critics in the recent past. Today in retrospect it might be deemed an exercise in construction to take into account some of the novels and short stories written in Urdu literature and determine their relevance in terms of the theories of the day. Modernism breathed its last in the last half of the 20th century after serious deliberations on the mundane and existential nature of human drama with alienation being its hymn. Altaf Hussain Hali , Sir Syed Ahmad Khan and ShibliNomani, the exponents of Modernism in Urdu literature though the benchmark of their time are relegated to the background in the context of the time much the same way as
"Portrait D'une Femme" and "Portrait of a Lady" were written in the early period of Pound's and Eliot's careers. Taking into account the first poem, the influence of the Modernist movement might be clear in the title of the poem. Pound wrote the title in French so as to present the poem internationally. As Peter Nicholls explained in his article "The Poetics of Modernism", “Pound's own sense of an 'international tongue' is more robustly public in its assumption than an authentically modern poetry will be both polyglot and allusive" (55). Comparing to Eliot's poem, the"Portrait D'une Femme" is not a long poem, influenced by imagism (a movement in poetry that emphasizes the use of precise visual images).
Robert Frost was a successful American poet during the modernism era. Who is known for his works such as “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.” and “The Road Not Taken.” Frost writing is placed mostly in the modernism time period but holds many 19th century tendencies. Which makes his writing difficult to place. The modernist time period is characterised as breaking traditional views of literature. While the 19th century time period refers to literature written with similar values and traditions of 19th century culture.
THE POST-WAR NOVEL AS CATCH-22: THE CHRONOLOGY AND EX-P.F.C WINTER GREEN Abstract At the moment, ‘postmodern’ understood as distinguishing from the modem. It had been used first in 1917, the German philosopher Rudolf Pannwitz defined the ‘nihilism’ of 20th century 's western subculture a subject matter he referred from Friedrich Nietzsche and resurfaced in the work of the Spanish literary critic Federico de Onis in 1934 to consult the backlash against literary modernism’. And also this paper indicates an exploration of Catch-22 (1961), this early document of American postmodern literature, particularly attempts to present the critical discussion surrounding this novel as connatural to the broader theoretical discussions surrounding the concept of postmodernism. My contention is that of this dialogue, due in part to the natural chronology and linear inclinations of literary criticism, and despite the professed outspokenness of postmodern ideas to an enigma, diligent efforts have to be made periodically reassert collapsed opportunities in literature. With this in mind, I desire Catch-22 in an effort of; first, demonstrate how critics have diminished the potential meaning of Catch-22 in imposing their own notions of a literary‐historical orientation.
Title: A critical study: How Edward Said explicated the predicament of Exile through the works of 20th century novelists. The Twentieth century can be considered as a highway in which several ideas, attitudes, and opinions in arts, history, politics, and literature exchanging each other. Thinkers and scholars of that period gave birth to their new ideas which some of these thoughts were the way for a great change in the world. Some of them added something to the old thoughts and theories and created new ideas or assumptions, which no one had thought about it before. In the twentieth-century, there was a part of which its roots in migration, diasporic, and exile conditions.
Twentieth Century is also known as the modern era and in those times when everyone was moving towards progression leaving behind the past, T.S Eliot was obsessed with the past. Being a modernist himself, he revolted against the ideas of progression. This revolt and constant clinginess to history and the previous era is evident in his works. In this paper, we are looking at how Eliot projected time and history in his renowned poem “The Wasteland”. Key Words: Modernism, Anti-Modernism, T.S Eliot, Wasteland, Time, History “Time is the moving image of eternity - (Plato)” In the beginning of twentieth century “Modernism” started as a movement/revolt against the past, it dreams of moving forward towards development.
This paper try to understand whether Western Postmodernism one can find in writing of Indian writer after Post Rushdie in general and Aravind Adiga’s The White Tiger in particular Postmodernism is a vital tool in aspects of drastic change in twentieth-century theories. It’s a reaction of Modernism and Modernism is seen as breaking away from the Victorian Tradition. Postmodernism is scenarios after world war ll postmodernism According to Philip Rice and Patricia Waugh, “The historian Arnold Toynbee first used the term in 1947 to describe the current, fourth and final phase of western history, dominated by anxiety and irrationalism.” (Rice, 67) Rice, Philip, and Waugh, Patricia. Modern Literary Theory – A Reader, Edward Arnold, Second Edition,
The term “Postcolonial literature’’ now replaces the traditional category of “Commonwealth literature’’ or “Third World literature.’’ There are several discourses of Postcolonial writings like: immigration, migration, feminization, marginalization, and dehumanization of native, quest for identity, pre-historic and post-historic evidences. This is an era of “globalizing spread’’ (Meenakshi Mukherjee 3). Postcolonialism is a vast project of decolonization of mind and spirit. Including all these terms only one word will be enough to say that is Diaspora. Diaspora is the prominent issue of the Postcolonial literature.
Abstract: Diaspora is defined as the dispersion of any people from their traditional homeland. Diasporic literature of the 21st century is enriched by the issues of diaspora, transnationalism, hybridity and identity crisis. These are reflected in the writings of Salman Rushdie, Amitabh Ghosh, V.S.Naipaul, Bharati Mukherjee and many others. Bharati Mukherjee in her novels attempt to bridge the gulf between “home” and “exile”. Nostalgia, directness towards the culture you are absorbing, re-stiching and the divided settler evolving into a permanent alien getting transformed into a perfect immigrant are the elements of consciousness.
“Eliot’s Waste Land is I think the justification of the ‘movement,’ of our modern experiment, since 1900.” (Pound, 1950). Just as human action is an output of hidden motives, the opulent type of poetry contains concealed meanings. This undoubtedly is the most conspicuous way to characterize modernism for a novice reader. Modernism was a metaphysical and cultural movement that emanated from an immense transformation in Western society in the late ninetieth and early twenty centuries, and it is accepted that T.S Eliot’s ‘The Wasteland’ was the dawn of Modernist poetry and literature. Modernism was a contemporary approach of thinking, a regeneration of the psyche, an advanced –ism that was the result of urbanisation, technological and economic