High rates of social disorganization and poverty levels can cause crime rates to increase as well. No economic opportunities in a community can factor into high crime rates. Drug use and gangs can also factor into this. Other factors may include a lack of family support and a poor education system.
Discretion is an official action taken by a police officer or any other agent of criminal justice in whereby they use their individual judgement to decide the course of action suitable for an occurring incident. In criminal justice, an officer considers the totality of circumstances before reaching on a decision to either take legal action or not against an individual. And to what extend the and kind of action will be take (Griffiths, 2013: 122), for instance; warning or arresting the individual. Furthermore, discretion is the privilege or permission granted to officers to use their own judgement to make practical decisions. However there are also attached constraints to this. Officers cannot go out and make choices of their own freely without underlying consequences. Criminal justice officials are governed by laws, rules and codes of ethics when exercising discretion.
Looking at policing is important not only because it is the starting point for involvement in the justice system, but also because the police play an exceptionally prominent and pervasive role in the lives of Aboriginal people in the justice system. Aboriginal people are more likely than non-Aboriginal people to have interaction with the police for grave matters such as being the victim of a crime, a witness to a crime, or being arrested on suspicion of committing a crime.
Director of Justice Reform and the MacArthur Foundation, as well as Christopher Simmons advocate Laurie Garduque reminiscences on the disregard for criminal juveniles during that time: “As concern about increasing juvenile crime peaked, we were alarmed at the wave of harsh juvenile justice reform sweeping the country that blurred lines between adults and juveniles… Existing research did not address the legal implications of adolescent developmental immaturity with respect to competency, culpability, and capacity for change” (“Roper v. Simmons Ten Years Later”). A similar sentiment was shared with Columbia Law School professor Elizabeth Scott, who recalled the conditions for criminal youth in the early 1990’s, asserting that “...attitudes about juvenile crime became more punitive, and it was clear that lawmakers weren’t focusing on developmental differences between teens and adults or how immaturity might contribute to juvenile offending” (“Roper v. Simmons Ten Years Later”). There are a myriad of scary commonalities between these anecdotes, such as the legal disregard for youths despite their underdeveloped brains. There are many factors that make adolescent minds susceptible to committing crimes. Juvenile brains are much more likely to submit to peer-pressure and to engage in rash decision making (“Juvenile Justice & the Adolescent Brain”). The Massachusetts General
The most startling rate of criminal involvement among many adolescents and young juveniles (young adults) is a major cause of concerns in Canada and the world at large. On the contrary, it is not accidental that the vast majority of youth who have enact these vicious crimes are incarcerated or place in juvenile detention centres. With the onset of mental health issues are currently on the rise scientific research are intended to comprehend this episode of juvenile offenders has prompted an investigation of the many contributing risk factors associated with these types of behavioural problems. In relation to this stigma what
Both instances of Australian law manifest an erosion of our civil liberties, and thus, an urgent requirement for our laws to consider a balance between the rights of the individual with the needs for community safety, taking into account the liberty of the individual and the rule of
Rights are afforded to everyone. Even those that are being accused or suspected of committing crimes. The population also has needs outside of their rights afforded by the criminal justice system. This paper will explore those needs of the population by discussing how the criminal justice professionals fill needs. The criminal justice professionals have roles and duties to meet those needs of individuals as well as the needs of society. Serving the public is the main duty of serving in this profession not only in a negative light by punishing those with the law but, also upholding justice, security, and protection to society. While providing these needs we must always address them without bias or discrimination because we live in a
Policing in this present day is defined as an individual or group of individual who prevent and detect crime within a community. Policing compares in many ways. They all attempt to provide services, keep the peace and reduce crime. Policing has evolved into something much more than what it used to be. Within this essay are the many different perspectives and how ethics were learned. Although it is questionable, that policing in America has different time periods. There is an agreement of three major eras of policing in America. Those three era's are, The Political Era, Reform, and Community Policing.
The police practice of carding is fundamentally perceived as a race and class issue that has come to define a tumultuous relationship between police and people of colour from the past to modern-day, causing a mistrust in police and the system. The practice of police stops allow police to operate in a grey area by obtaining evidence and information through psychological intimidation, many times directed to youth. The recent call for legislation and accountability of police has brought the issue to the forefront of media and public concern.
In the beginning of Moskos’ book, he reminisces over joining the police force in order to write about the experiences involved with being an officer. At first, the other officers did not accept him because they feared the intentions of his book. Their fear was that the book would bash and exploit the police force. The other officers would carefully watch their conversations around Moskos. Eventually, his colleagues and higher ranked officers realized he posed no threat, so they contributed their ideas. Although Moskos’ primary reason for joining the force was to advance in his academics, he felt bonded by natural brotherhood developed from his time with his fellow officers. The bonds he formed are unlike the relationships he has with
Probation is known as a front-door program that helps participants avoid going to jail or prison; it also serves as a second chance for offenders to get their lives back together. I was wondering, though—does probation really work for youth? Do those who undergo probation receive rehabilitation so they won’t commit future crimes? Also, what is it like to have someone who is a youth in the criminal justice system? What services do they receive?
Ethics seems to be a popular topic for discussion these days, especially in law enforcement. During the past few years law enforcement has been the subject of increased scrutiny across the country; Rodney King, Ruby Ridge, evidence planting in Philly and Mark Furham’s testimony. The last decades have seen the issues of ethics come to the forefront of our society predominantly through TV, radio and print. Since that is the case law enforcement officers should represent the highest level of ethical conduct in a community. In a perfect world that would be the case, whether they were in the spot light or not, in most cases it still is true
A grasp of the current conflict surrounding the responsibility and direction of the juvenile justice system becomes more obtainable when one takes into consideration how the system has progressed since its inception. The juvenile justice system was created in the late 1800s to reform U.S. policies regarding youth offenders. Since that time, a number of reforms - aimed at both protecting the "due process of law" rights of youth, and creating an aversion toward jail among the young - have made the juvenile justice system more comparable to the adult system, a shift from the United States original intent.
Juvenile delinquency, also known as juvenile offending, or youth crime, is participation in illegal behavior by minors (juveniles) (individuals younger than the statutory age of majority). Most legal systems prescribe specific procedures for dealing with juveniles, such as juvenile detention centers, and courts. A juvenile delinquent is a person who is typically under the age of 18 and commits an act that otherwise would have been charged as a crime if they were an adult. Depending on the type and severity of the offense committed, it is possible for persons under 18 to be charged and tried as adults .
If there is anything which has always existed, it is crime. Crime has existed for centuries and it is something we can never avoid. But the most important and concerning question is, does the fact that someone of a certain age affect their responsibility for an offence committed and are they liable for punishment? Or should there be a certain age limit where a person could be held responsible for a crime that someone commits? If we look at the different criminal justice systems around the world, most countries have laws or regulations stating the “age of criminal responsibility” (Maher. G). However, there has been no clear international standard identified regarding the age at which criminal responsibility could be reasonably charged for a juvenile offender. The Convention on the Rights of Children (CRC) appeals parties to establish ‘a minimum age below which children shall be