ABSTRACT AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The study aims to investigate factors influencing incivility behaviors in nursing causing high turnover rates by examining and reviewing the causes of incivility behaviors, also to discuss the available effective strategies that can help reduce incivility behavior in nursing. BACKGROUND Internationally, various studies and reports have raised concern regarding hostile behaviors in the nursing workplace. Incivility in nursing is defined as rude or disruptive behaviors which often result in physiological or psychological distress for people involved and if left unaddressed, may progress into a threatening situation (Broome 2011). Although aggression and violence from patients and visitors are cause for concerns, nurses reported hostility among colleagues, managers and other professionals have been the most concern and an impact to nurses’ society. Incivility defines as “a rude or unsociable speech or behavior (Merriam 2010).
Healy and McKay’s percentages were A total of 51, (45.9% response rate) online questionnaires was returned while another 60 (54.1% response rate) paper-based questionnaires was completed. A total, 111 nurses completed the survey with an 80.4% response rate. Out of the 80.4%, 60% agreed that the workloads are highly stressful. The results stated that nurses rated their workloads as highly stressful in terms of stressful situation are brought upon them and it affects themselves. Stress was also related to poor job satisfaction in the workplace, with employees and employers.
Etiology of Burnout Burnout is the end result of work stress. The American Psychological Association (2015) states that about 75% of Americans suffer at least one symptom of stress every month. Stress is defined as an imbalance state in energetical supply which makes someone feeling difficulty to restore or compensate (Sanders 1983). Stress can be beneficial if it is considered as positive motivation or inspiration and does not pose a threat to someone experiencing it; however, stress can also mean bad stress and bring anger, tension, or confusion. According to Maslach et al (2001), the contributing factors of burnout may consist of situational factors and individual factors.
Like the related literature, it can be of a foreign study or a local study. Synthesis of research findings is just the review and summarize field of study. Synthesis writing is more difficult than it might at first appear because this combining must be done in a meaningful way and the final essay must generally be thesis-driven. According to Signer (2002), composition courses, “synthesis” commonly refers to writing about printed texts, drawing together particular themes or traits that you observe in those texts and organizing the material from each text according to those themes or traits (http://www.users.drew.edu/sjamieso/synthesis.htm retrieved
The next few chapters will dive into causes of corruption, through a disabling viewpoint, and focus on theories that are comparative to police corruption. The theory of police corruption is a well research area in which police stress attributes to many issues. The physical and psychological demands of police stress have been explored throughout this text. The review of this book was to determine the likelihood of a coincidence of police corruption and PTSD (including depression, alcoholism, etc.) created a need for further examination of this subject matter.
One in six people of working age is estimated to suffer from mental illness, most commonly depression and anxiety, and is associated with increased personal and economic costs. Mental health difficulties are oftentimes conceptualised as incapability to work effectively, however, majority of mental illness in the workplace is treatable and some are preventable. Nursing, as a ‘helping profession’, is a demanding, high-risk and stressful profession that exposes the nurses to both acute and chronic stressors that may lead to mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder or secondary traumatic stress. This essay will discuss about the mental health in the nursing profession, particularly examining the workplace factors that impact on nurses’ mental health and evidence based strategies that build self-resilience. Stress is among the most common workplace hazards for nurses and is
However, as mentioned the disparities are more profound when issues of race and class are intertwined in the sentencing. This research proposal is purposed at investigating the disparities and the variables that contribute to the gaps in sentencing men and women
Method In order to achieve my aim, I will examine different approaches and criticisms made about the Malthus's theory and how the theory is applied. I will apply the theoretical notions such as production set in production theory and marginal diminishing return. I will perform to theoretical notions and go into the place of Malthus's theory. 1.4. Literature Survey By this time, the subject that I have chosen has been researched by various experts, authors etc., that is why there are lots of different articles that I have faced while doing my research.
Review of literature: Literature review is a critically summary of most important literature which conducted by many researchers help to answer the research problem. (Fain 2009).Evaluating the studies by critically appraisal of four valid keys which are validity, reliability ,bias and rigours (Melnyk and Overholt 2011) Search strategy : Most of the literature was collected from electronic search from Cardiff University’s electronic library. PubMed, Cochrane library ,MEDLINE ,psycho info, clinical trial databases and Google scholar engine were searched . Books of EBP and research were used from Oman Nursing Institute Library. Moreover, backward and forward chaining was accessed .The key wards used during searching were major depression, cognitive behavioral therapy ,combined CBT and antidepressant ,reduce depressive symptoms, psychotherapy ,pharmacotherapy and efficiency Initially, forty articles reviewed but not all were included ,it narrowed to 7 studies according to inclusion and exclusion criteria.
Motowildo et.al. (1986) examined occupational stress and its relation with individual characteristics, job conditions, stressful events, affect, and job performance. Findings show that ratings of interpersonal aspects of job performance and cognitive/motivational aspects correlated significantly with self-reported perceptions of stressful events, subjective stress, depression, and hostility. Models developed through path analysis suggest that the frequency and subjective intensity of the 45 events identified in Study 1 caused feelings of stress, leading to depression and causing decrements in interpersonal and cognitive/motivational aspects of job performance. Kirk L. Froggatt and John L. Cotton, (1987) in their study controlled laboratory