Problem-oriented policing, also known as operational strategies, have five core elements: preventive patrol, routine incident response, emergency response, criminal investigation, and problem solving. In addition to the five core strategies, there is also a lone ancillary operation strategy, support services. Law enforcement officers use this to help prevent crime by being pro-active and responding to calls. The first of the core operational strategies is the prevention patrol. Prevention patrol is an active response and most dominate operation of police strategy. It is used to deter people from committing criminal behavior, interrupt crimes that are in the process of being committed, and position police officers in positions for a fast response
In McClesky v. Kemp the Supreme Court held that a study showing the death penalty in Georgia was imposed on black defendants disproportionately to white defendants failed to establish that any of the decision makers involved in the process acted with a discriminatory purpose. McClesky is a notable case in several respects. First, it highlighted the integrated nature of the criminal justice system and how each component functions to reach a certain result. Second, it emphasized the debate on which actors in the justice system have the most power and what role that power plays in reaching the result. Third, the case also underscored the importance on prosecutors keeping records of their decisions at varying stages of the criminal justice process.
The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) and the United and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act (USA Patriot Act) are two actions taken to aid in the efforts against terrorism in the United States. FISA was enacted in 1978 and the U.S. Patriot Act was enacted in 2001 (McAdams III, no date). Both Acts have been and will continue to be critical instruments to combat terrorism. However, the media has exploited these Acts in terms of civil liberties and has demoralized the truth behind them. This has led the public to misunderstand the purpose and process of both FISA and the USA Patriot Act.
In today’s world, crime is at an all time high and it is a very serious issue and we need a solution to take care of these serious problems these problems will only grow over time and it is time something is done about it. It is very important to keep this world a safe place as our population grows. A solution could be for police to wear body cameras to prevent abuse towards law enforcement, police abuse towards citizens, and to help in some court cases involving police brutality.
In discussions of passing the Michael brown Jr law which equips police officers to wear a body camera, one controversial issue has been that most police brutalities are not caught on tape or no witness sees what exactly happened, and who started what. The source argues that some cases of police brutalities that are caught on tape police does nothing to handle the case. My own view is that police officers should be equipped with body cameras so in case of police brutality cases they can know exactly what happened that day so there will be no questions asked for the police officers.
Technology and Communication systems are critical tools in policing. The rate of technological change in recent years is so fast that I personally believe that is safe to predict that in a mere few years from now, current technology will be substantially improved if not obsolete. Technology is constantly changing the way police departments operate in many ways. When I first started in EMS 20 years ago, I had intended to use dispatching as a gateway into policing (instead of Emergency Medicine.) Back then, Computer Aided Dispatching was ground breaking technology, GPS did not exist, tracking of units was done with paper, graphs, whiteboards and bulletin boards. Units would radio updates on their status and positions, request back-up, request
This system collects data on every reported incident and arrests made in 22 criminal categories. The proposed changes included in the NIBR are as follows, law enforcement must provide a summary of the incident to include all pertinent information of the victims and offenders. Reporting of both Part I and Part II criminal offenses and characteristics of the person arrested are required. Distinguish between attempted vs. completed offenses and who or what is the offense against. Finally, make data readily available in addition to constantly monitoring for errors in the system (Hagan, 2006, p. 36). Although, implementation of this system is expected to close the gap of the concerns with the initial UCR, as of 2015, only 33 states were certified to use this system, however, of those certified they may or may not use all of their agencies to report data. The data provided by both the UCR and NIBR depict the number of juvenile arrests, but does not account for all criminal acts committed, such as unreported crime. For this criminologist, must rely on additional research
Recently the right to privacy has been severely threatened by the Patriot Act. The USA PATRIOT ACT, which was made a law on October 26, 2001 by president George W. Bush, let criminal investigators use whatever tools necessary to find terrorist attacks before they happened; USA PATRIOT ACT is short for "Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001". This was made a law in response to the attacks on the Pentagon and World Trade Center in NYC on September 11, 2001.
Television, movies, and other mass media sources use persuasion in commercials, product placement, etc. but what about in the content? Is what one sees perceived as true and factual? How are people influenced by media (Postman, 161)? More importantly, how are people influenced by media to view those called upon for help when in need? The overabundance of media relating to crime has not only influenced public opinion but has also triggered changes for law enforcement personnel. The bias (or incorrect/incomplete) views of news media have contributed to a negative opinion of law enforcement officers. Television programs and movies have portrayed false realities of the lives of law enforcement
The top two and most commonly used programs for reporting and tracking crime statistics in the United States are the Uniform Crime Reports, UCR, program and the National Incident-Based Reporting System, NIBRS, program. Each program contains data from crimes and incidents that is tracked, analyzed, and reported by different law enforcement agencies from the reported incidents. While the UCR is the most commonly used, many law enforcement agencies are working towards shifting to full participation of NIBRS. Both programs use similar methodology to create reports of their crime based statistics, but still contain varying differences. One of the differences of the two systems is the methodology. Another is the data in the report and what this data means for various law enforcement agencies across the country.
Many people might say that the privacy of modern day American citizens is being violated, that to similar to the world of 1984. The novel 1984 written by George Orwell is about a totalitarian government who oppresses its people and controls all aspects of their lives. The government is symbolized by Big Brother, people are monitored their entire day for flaws in their thinking towards Big Brother. I believe that privacy of American citizens is being violated and that people should not give up aspects of their personal privacy for greater good of society.
Surveillance is becoming increasingly integrated into human lives. Seemingly inconsequential minutiae like how long one spends in line at a grocery store or how many times a headline is clicked on a social media site are collected automatically by both public and private institutions. Whatever we do and wherever we go, there is likely some trace of it. This has led to great debates about the right to privacy, how much surveillance is too much, and under what circumstances surveillance is justifiable. Film and Television play important roles in these debates and in the way in which the public conceptualizes the utility and threat of surveillance more generally. Popular depictions include the sci-fi dramedy, The Truman Show, and detective dramas like Person of Interest. These texts appear to have conflicting ideas about
With the advancement of surveillance technology, many citizens feel that their privacy rights have been violated due to homeland security and the threat of terrorism. Throughout history our government has implemented domestic and international surveillance as a way to safeguard our society from other countries. Now the question that seems to arise within our society is if the government is infringing on our civil liberties? Or is this indeed protecting our nation from imminent danger?
The general public are the biggest critics of local police forces across the United Kingdom, Crime mapping now indicates to the General public that police forces are actively policing local communities and working to mitigate risks. Crime mapping is an exceptional tool for hearts and minds between the police force and general public. Crime mapping permits police forces to determine which locations require additional support in means of allocating man-power or security systems. Crime mapping enables police forces to inform the public of any changes within the community.
Technology is growing at a fast pace and every day we see a new product or service that is available. Many times it is hard to even keep up with the latest phone, computer, game console, or software. There are so many different gadgets to choose from and even the internet is on information overload. As a result, we can no longer truly expect to have privacy. However, does all this new technology really benefit us? Will we allow technology to overtake our world? We can already see the ramifications of so much technology. Adults and children have become stagnate which is affecting their health. On the other hand we can also see all the good technology can do.