Establishing and communicating urgency is what makes these two models different, yet Leppitt 's Integrated Model is more robust in my opinion. To start, I have never heard that fewer steps are always better when establishing and implementing a strategy. For example, because RANDs’ six steps are short and straightforward, an organization would probably use Leppitt’s model for a fleet management or leadership change. In a management change, an organization can hit step 3 (recruit the champion) and step 4 (build internal momentum) by locating a new leader and motivating team members to be upbeat of the coming change (Lennox, 1994). To go a step further, in a case like creating a new strategic position in the organization, I believe that Leppitt 's Integrated Model works better.
Correspondingly, goals, strategies, objectives, and activities must be allocated with special recognition to the beneficiaries that policy directly impacts. Therefore, street-level bureaucrat based evaluation would be the most appropriated practice (Matland, 1995, 149). In late 70s and early 80s, bottom-up theories appeared as a evaluative response to the top-down school. Diverse studies showed that political sequel did not always adequately relate to initial policy objectives and that the assumed causal link was thus questionable. Discretion by agents is the fundamental hypothesis of the bottom-upper’s approach (Elder, Lecture, 2011).
Assignment 1 1. Write an essay on the assumption of “Rational Self-Interest.” Make sure that you touch on each of the 3 components of this assumption that we discussed in class. Comment on the relevance of this assumption in our daily lives. Please explain how Adam Smith’s Invisible Hand Theory uses the assumption of Rational Self-Interest to show how society benefits. Decisions are what determines the success of people, businesses and nations, a good decision could mean extreme wealth and a bad decision could mean the end of a business or friendship.
However, considering emergence of CONAIE, readers might question whether this was true. As Benford and Snow, author regards the model of political opportunity structure as a static system. (1986, p465). From this perspective, emergence of CONAIE depicted two issues: firstly, political opportunity structure became more open and more advantageous for indígenas groups. Meanwhile, the emergence of CONAIE itself was a signal that the system was not open enough.
4.2 The Contingency Theories of Leadership. Contingency theories of leadership evolved in response to the failure of ‘universalistic’ approaches to leadership and the realization that the situation in which leadership occurs also impacts leadership effectiveness (House 1996; Keller, 1973; Miner 2011) The basic premise of these theories is that each organisation is unique, and exists in a distinctive environment. Factors such as the organization’s size, scope of work, technology employed as well as the physical and cultural environment, together create ‘contingencies’ or situations that impact the leader’s leadership style. As a consequence, successful leadership must take into consideration interactions between all factors making up the general circumstances in which leadership is occurring (University of Leicester 2011). This requires studying both inter-personal and individual-task-organisational relationships to establish the most suitable leadership approaches for that set of circumstances.
The resolution of the paradox must lie in the side effects of successful improvement, not in forces that impede change or in external economic events. This paper explores the causes and consequences of the paradox. How does TQM interact with the organization as a whole? How might initial success lead to unintended consequences that thwart continuous improvement and parallely , what policies might mitigate such side effects? QUESTIONS 1.
The Inverse Bayes’ Factor The risk ratio, ρ in eEquation. (4.1), measures the odds of the null hypothesis being “true” (the party wins the election from a constituency) to it being “false” (the party loses the election from that constituency) under a particular set of data which, in this case, is that the party is the incumbent party in the constituency. In this formulation of risk, the data applicable to the different outcomes (winning or losing the election) was the same (the party was the incumbent). An alternative view of risk is obtained by posing the following question: given two rival scenarios— – in the first, a party is the incumbent in an election to a constituency while, in the second, it is a challenger— - what is the ratio of its probabilities of winning in these different situations? In this case, the risk ratio of being the incumbent party is the ratio of the likelihood that the party wins the election if it was the incumbent to the likelihood that the party wins the election if it was a challenger.
Introduction Recent research on classroom assessment focused on the interactions between assessment and classroom learning with a hope that improvement in classroom assessment will result in effective learning. As a result, a variety of alternatives in assessment were proposed and researched. Alternatives in assessment have become popular for that they require students to perform, produce, and create; focus on processes as well as products; tap into higher level thinking and problem-solving skills; and provide information about both the strengths and weaknesses of students (Brown & Hudson, 1998, p.654). They are also popular as they establish an ongoing circular association among three significant aspects of education: teaching, assessment
If LV products can be successfully counterfeited with enough quality, then its brand name will vanish. Identification and Evaluation of the main Strategic Options for Growth TOWS Matrix TOWS Matrix is often credited to Albert Humphrey. It stands for Threats, Opportunities, Weaknesses and Strengths. It aims to identify possible strategic options that a firm has for the future (Morrison, 2012). Here is the TOWS Matrix for LV.
A good school is a changing school. Experts claim that change is inevitable. It is very necessary for schools to recognize their imperfections and be willing to identify the causes of those imperfections and seek solutions, constantly evaluate, accept criticism and then adjust goals accordingly in order to meet the needs of their students. The development of an educational institution ultimately means improving the teaching-learning process as well as the environment in which it occurs through effective leadership. The processes of life and growth demand appropriate change with the passage of time.