While there were others who discovered vaccination before Jenner, such as Benjamin Jesty (1737–1816), Jenner’s research was the “first scientific attempt to control an infectious disease by the deliberate use of vaccination”. Furthermore, Jenner was ardent in his investigation and was persistent in publicising his vaccine. For instance, Figure 1 below shows an extract from a letter written by Jenner himself on the instructions for vaccine inoculation targeted to those who were interested in the smallpox vaccine. By 1800, his effort led to a widespread use of vaccination in majority of the European countries. This new knowledge on inhibition of the spread of contagious diseases was a reason that led to the ideology that the “right of the individual to contract and spread infectious disease should be suspended”.
Also, the ATF seemed to have a lack of understanding of the Davidians and their religion, there seemed to be an underlying sense of judgement. “…inability to understand and relate to the religious beliefs…an abysmal lack of understanding of the phenomenon of the religious faith,” (Arnold 24). However, some might say that the Davidians were too extreme in their faith and beliefs. They may have taken things too far, they should have surrendered when they were told to, etc. This is something the media and authorities played up publicly.
Gardasil Causing Girl 's Death My technical reading article is about the HPV vaccine, Gardasil. I chose this article because the subject was very interesting to me. I have taken Gardasil, so the information I have learned is very important to me. Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs published a study recently that provided proof that viral elements in the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Gardasil are effectively crossing the blood-brain barrier and triggering cerebral vasculitis. Cerebral vasculitis is a severe form of blood vessel inflammation in the brain that can lead to severe autoimmune disorders and even death.
Then the focus of HIV vaccines turned on to Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes [8-13]. Because in immune system Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes play a significant role in controlling the levels of virus during the natural infection of HIV. So targeting CTLs has also been a preference for research and development of HIV vaccine (3). The development of HIV vaccine is a difficult challenge because of lengthy, time consuming and expensive clinical trials for testing HIV candidate vaccines (2). In spite of the difficult and enormous challenge, the recent success provide a way forward towards the development of vaccine against HIV (2).
One of Sonni Ali’s travel and trade accomplishments was when his army and he occupied Timbuktu in 1488 and this was important because Timbuktu was situated in the Trans-Saharan trade route. Another neighboring state that Timbuktu conquered was the city of Gao. Just like The Ming China the Songhai also invented gunpowder. Some of the other things which the Songhai invented were; silk and this is where the name silk road comes from, fireworks which are also still used today all over the world, the wheel which was not really used back then but is used in today’s life and the Songhai believed that they invented steel which is used to build a lot of things. The Songhai dynasty also played a role in building the Ming China’s Great Wall of China.
Because of the fear we as obstetricians has of receiving a patient with massive postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), we try to improve our response to this extreme emergency. Postpartum hemorrhage is a major cause of pregnancy related death in both developed and developing nations. Bakri balloon is one of these improvements, which, I believe, is one of the most important advances for treating serious postpartum hemorrhage. I’ll explain here why this device should be utilized more often when treatment with uterotonics hasn’t adequately resolved bleeding. In 1992, Dr Younes Bakri introduced intrauterine balloon tamponade for the treatment of obstetric hemorrhage during cesarean delivery (1-4).
He studied medicine and served a physician during the World War 1. He was a doctor and a bacteriologist. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1945 for his discovery of penicillin and the curative effect in various infectious diseases.He attended the Louden Moor School, the Darvel School and Kilmarnock Academy before moving to London with his brother in 1895. In London, Alexander Fleming finished his basic education at the Regent Street Polytechnic which is now called the University of Westminster. Alexander Fleming entered the medical field in 1901, studying at St. Mary’s Hospital Medical School, while he was at St. Mary’s he won the 1908 gold medal as the top medical student.
Vaccines have come a long way from the barbaric variolation treatments for smallpox in the 15th century CE in China. Treatment for smallpox remained the same until Edward Jenner developed the first vaccination for smallpox in 1796. Nations began issuing laws to force people into vaccinations. England began the first vaccination act in 1840 and the United States court rulings date back to the 1900s when compulsory vaccination for smallpox outweighed the individual right to privacy. This common good approach drew vociferous protests and the anti-vaccination movement emerged (Stern & Markel, 2005).
By using it as inspiration, they have found new things in the field of medicine which have helped our society with many amazing advancements that have saved many lives. Hippocratic medicine did not just focus on the health of the body, but also on the health of the mind. The first classification of mental disorders shown by Hippocrates were things like mania, epilepsy, paranoia, panic, hysteria, and many more. Mental illnesses were not treated differently and were treated like normal diseases. The role of music and theatre played a big part in being the treatment for many different mental diseases, specific music applications were used to treat different things.
In a court case a judge Lawrence Karlton “He states that the phrase ‘under God’ violates the children's right to be ‘free from a coercive requirement to affirm God’” (CNN). This shows that the Pledge is putting kids in an environment that might go against his/her believes. And according to Under God, “A surprising number of Americans nonetheless felt that the judges had a good point-that the reference to God in the pledge was an inappropriate endorsement of religion on the part of the government.”(Piereson). The government, by having students say the Pledge isn’t fair because it endorse or support religions with God, and not acknowledging the religions that don’t believe in