It shows the dominant aesthetic aspects of the sonnets. It uses theories of intertextuality and semiotics in terms of aesthetics. Study of theories of Roman Jakobson (1896-1982) and Roland Barthes (1915-1980) regarding semiotics in Shakespeare's sonnets shows metaphors of the sonnets as aesthetic signs. This study
Western Civilization: Revolution and The Enlightenment Introduction By 1700, the Western civilization had already experienced an exceptional transformation in terms of revolution and enlightenment. Most of the Western nations begun embracing freedom of the press under the influence of exiled protestants who pioneered journals and newspapers targeting absolutism. Emerging social circles encouraged the establishment of civil societies which made the quest for knowledge and political ambitions to thrive. Furthermore, they trained social criticism which shaped the discovery of revolutionary liberalism. Accordingly, new societies emerged and acted as learning institutions for new ideas and innovative practices with a common purpose.
These systems initiated the whole process of landlordism which was closely inspired from principles of individualism which marks the liberal ideas as promoted by Bentham, James Mill, Ricardo and later by J S Mill. This individualism deeply rooted in the idea of individual rights, which were secured through legislations strengthened the western liberal values which Mill envisaged for the development of traditional societies. This individualism through ownership of land holdings created a class of natives who supported and strengthened British rule in India. This is in particular with Permanent settlement, where class of landowners initiated the process of capital accumulation which led to initiation of industrial growth and emergence of class of middlemen who whole heartedly supported British rule in India. Mill himself while explaining the land settlement in Punjab explains that the process led to the “peace and security never before known in the province; a rapid increase of cultivation and production; and a contentment with our rule, which has enabled this newly-conquered territory, inhabited by the most warlike population of India, to become the base of our operations for the recovery of our older territories, and has made the Sikhs, so lately in arms against us, an important
In Victorian literature the idea of duality and the double present as a theme which is common. This ever present theme within literature from the fin de siecle of the Victorian Era allow readers of the text to be able to gain an insight into Victorian culture and the socialial ideals of the period. In using Stange Case Of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson and also The Picture Of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde allows the reader to gain an insight into the previlence of this theme, dispite themes within these novels being rejected by soicitey at the time. I will write about both of these works with the aim to analyise, compare and contrast the depiction of the double within the Picture of Dorian Gray and The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. Duality is defined as “two conceptually distinctive ideas that are interrelated” (Ericson, 2004).
It is defined as “the positive social value a person effectively claims for himself during a particular contact (Ogiermann, 2009: 11). Whereas, Leech (2005: 01-07) named this theory as Grand Strategy of Politeness (GSP), which is evident in common linguistic behavior patterns in the performance of polite speech acts such as requests, offers, apologies, and responses to these politely. Accordingly, he introduced the Principle of Politeness (PP) analogous, is a constraint observed in human communicative behavior, influencing us to avoid communicative discord or offence, and maintain communicative concord and entertain mutually incompatible goals. That is, according to him, politeness is an aspect of goal-oriented behavior; i.e. S’s goal in using polite utterance is, in some degree, to uphold the PP, and to communicate that goal to H. Politeness is concerned with avoiding discord and fostering concord, during communication.
This identification is preceded by awareness of the person’s woes a bond which helps vivify moral life. The new lease of life that comes to societal morality is because of the evaluation and appraisal accruing from the sensibility of the person gazing at the other. 2.2 Romantic Sensibility and Sympathy In An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age, sensibility is the means where the middle class deﬁnes itself against a lower class and magnifies the pleasure of a secret comparison between non-suffers and suffers. To the eighteenth-century writer, it was a powerful tool to
Johnson was the first English lexicographer to use citations in this way, a method that greatly influenced the style of future dictionaries. He had scoured books stretching back to the 1500s, often quoting from those thought to be 'great works ' such as Milton or Shakespeare.” (The British Library, Literary quotations). In the eighteenth century, the language changed due to the time of the empire. Because of the people who came from foreign countries to England for commercial trading purposes, the language was affected from both foreign countries and England. “Johnson argued that as a country grows, so does the language.” (Seargeant and Swann, 2012, p.
Comparative Literature offers a scope for the literary scholars to sketch the transformations in the personality of Man in a society, his individuality and nature and entrusts a fabulous chance for an expedition through all literary genres and texts across time and space. It is easy for Comparative scholars to trace the life style of people, their desires and needs, the problem that limit their extent, the demands from society on an individual, his economical status and the rights given for women in general and girl children in particular. Mathew Arnold, who has coined the term 'Comparative Literature ' in English, in his inaugural Lecture at Oxford in 1857 while highlighting the importance of the comparative approach to literature propounds, Everywhere there is a connection, everywhere there is an illustration. No single event, no single literature is adequately comprehended except in relation to other events, to other literatures. (1) (Mathew Arnold, On the modern Element in
English texts and novels are seen as a super power to a mental conquest of ideologies and cultural base. It gradually developed in India a class of people who mentally support the British culture and accepted it as a dominant one , sometimes superior than our indigenous cultural practices. Here the introduction of English text and language becomes a part of cultural diplomacy. According to Milton Cummings,
English: The Global Language Globalisation and the dominance of English as well as the iconic value of English as a sign of modernisation raise many questions for those engaged in language policy and in the management of language education. The aim of this research is to bring together a range of cultural, commercial, linguistic and educational environments with their perceptions regarding these issues. There is little doubt that English has acquired a status of lingua franca. This is largely a consequence of British colonialism and Americanisation, especially the United States’ post-war advance and dominance in global economy, technology and science, education and even entertainment. People in the international community are communicating in English with professional partners and colleagues, reading English articles, watching American soap operas and movies, listening to Anglophone pop music and surfing the Internet which is 80 per cent English,